Sprout length measurement in cm
SPRTL
IITA
A.Amele
Total tuber weight per plot computation in kg
IITA
A.Amele
Leaf density estimation 1-7
IITA
A.Amele
Root position estimation 1-4
IITA
A.Amele
FSA-UAC, BÃˆnin
Boiled yam fibrousness scale 0-100
Laurent Adinsi
IITA
A.Amele
Weight of medium tubers per plant computation kgplt
Small size tuber length computation in cm
IITA
A.Amele
Txt_BY
IITA
Boiled yam texture estimation 1-5 scale
A.mele
Moderate (producing some flowers mostly 10-29 inflorescences per plant)
5
IITA
Ratiosp
A.Amele, A. Lopez-Mentes
Proportion of emerged plants (sprouts) computation/%
Mealybug severity estimation in 1-5
M_Bs
A. Lopez-Montes
IITA
Upper surface leaf hairiness estimation 0-2
IITA
A.Amele
A. Lopez-Montes
IITA
Btl_S
Leaf beetle damage severity estimation in 1-5
IITA
A.Amele
tbrwidth
Average tuber width computation in cm
Root knot nematode incidence computation %
R_Kni
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
IITA
A.Amele
Big tuber length computation in cm
Foliage senescence time computation in days
DAYHS
A. Lopez-Montes
IITA
IITA
A.Amele
Pollmech
Pollination type estimation 1-4
Dark green
3
Seedling survival rate percentage
IITA
A.Amele
Hairiness of tuber estimation 1-3
A. Lopez-Montes
IITA
TBR_Hairy
A. Lopez-Montes
IITA
Tuber dry rot incidence computation in %
S_Bri
Tuber flesh color upper portion estimation 1-9
A. Lopez-Montes
IITA
Flcolr_head
Boiled yam granuleness 0-100
Laurent Adinsi
FSA-UAC, BÃˆnin
A. Lopez-Montes
IITA
Canopy
Canopy architecture estimation 1-4
Number of leaves per plant count
IITA
A.Amele
A.Amele
IITA
Stem diameter computation in mm
stemdim
Boiled yam whiteness scale 0-100
FSA-UAC, BÃˆnin
Laurent Adinsi
PLNV
Plant vigor estimation 1-3
A. Lopez-Montes
IITA
Fruit setting time estimation in yy/mm/dd
IITA
A.Amele
IITA
A.Amele
End of seeds germination time estiamtion in yy/mm/dd
DAEGR
100
Present
IITA
A.Amele
TWNH
Twining habit estimation 0-1
IITA
A.Amele
Average tuber weight computation in kg
A. Lopez-Montes
IITA
Pollinated spikes counting
NPOLS
A. Lopez-Montes
IITA
Seeds set/fruit computation
0
No symptoms
Flowering time computation in days
DF
IITA
A.Amele
Absent
0
IITA
A.Amele
Springness estimation 1-2
Strepdym
100
Present
IITA
A.Amele
Small tubers per plant compuatation
DtFFlr
IITA
Flowering time estimation in yy/mm/dd
A.Amele
Btbrwt
Weight of big tubers per plot measurement in kg
IITA
A.Amele
100
Granular
pounded yam aroma estimation 1-5 scale
A.mele
Aroma_PY
IITA
Weight medium tubers per plot measurement in kg
IITA
A.Amele
Mtbrwt
0
Difficult
Aetbrp
A. Lopez-Montes
IITA
Bulbils per plot count
IITA
A.Amele
Corm estimation binary 0&1
A.mele
IITA
Color_PY
pounded yam color estimation 1-5 scale
IITA
A.Amele
Presence of tuber dry rot estimation in 0&1
stnp
A. Lopez-Montes
IITA
Stems per plant computation per plant
IITA
A.Amele
First inflorescence initiation time estimation in yy/mm/dd
A. Lopez-Montes
IITA
Flower initiation time estimation in yy/mm/dd
DtFlrin
slightly oxidizing
1
VRSI
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
Virus incidence computation %
IITA
A.Amele
50% sprout emergence time computation in days
DyFemer
Corm size estimation 1-3
Cormsize
IITA
A.Amele
Fruits developed per cross counting
FrtN
A. Lopez-Montes
IITA
Fruit harvest time estimation in yy/mm/dd
IITA
A.Amele
IITA
A.Amele
First sprout emergence time computation in days
Emerday
Weight of rotten/diseased tubers per plot measurement in kg
A. Lopez-Montes
IITA
Rot_Wt
Tuber flesh color lower portion estimation 1-9
Flcolr_tail
A. Lopez-Montes
IITA
Neither like nor dislike
3
4
sweet
Monoecious male (m>f)
3
Color_BY
A.mele
IITA
Boiled yam color estimation 1-5 scale
Small tubers per plot counting number
IITA
A.Amele
Rough
1
IITA
A.Amele
Sprout hairiness estimation nominal 0&2
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
Con_Stick_PY
Stickiness estimation 1-3
A. Lopez-Montes
IITA
Weight of planted tubers computation/ gm
SETW
Dayflrin
A. Lopez-Montes
IITA
Fower initiation time computation in days
Big tuber average weight computation in kg
IITA
A.Amele
IITA
A.Amele
Aetubwtp
Bulbil weight per plot measurement in kg
IITA
Uniformity of tuber flesh color estimation binary 0&1
A.Amele
flcol_uni
yam anthracnose disease severity estimation in 1-5
AnthracSev
A. Lopez-Montes
IITA
A.mele
Boiled yam aroma estimation 1-5 scale
IITA
Aroma_BY
Boiled yam chewingness scale 0-100
Laurent Adinsi
FSA-UAC, BÃˆnin
Laurent Adinsi
Boiled yam bitterness 0-100
FSA-UAC, BÃˆnin
Lower surface leaf hairiness estimation 0-2
IITA
A.Amele
Yellow
3
IITA
A.Amele
Medium size tuber length computation in cm
IITA
A.Amele
Total tuber weight per plant computation in kg
Sprout color estimation 1-5
A. Lopez-Montes
IITA
SPCOLO
A. Lopez-Montes
IITA
Aetbrin
Bulbil initiation time estimation in yy/mm/dd
IITA
A.Amele
Time to first leaf emergence computation
flrsex
IITA
A.Amele
Plant sex estimation 0-4
plntsex
Tuber flesh color measurement
IITA
A.Amele
Tbrflcolr
1
dislikeextremely
Taste_BY
IITA
A.mele
Boiled yam taste estimation 1-5 scale
3
few thorns or spines on tuber surface
A. Lopez-Montes
IITA
Tuber beetle incidence computation %
Tbeti
frtform
IITA
A.Amele
Fruit setting estimation 0&1
Tuber size estimation 1-3
TUBSIZE
A. Lopez-Montes
IITA
Few anthracnose spots or sysmptoms on 1 t0 ~25% of the plant. One or two spots of less than 1 cm diameter width, and dry tissue on the leaf surface
2
Corm type estimation 1-3
IITA
A.Amele
Cormtype
2
dislike
IITA
A.Amele
Crazy roots presence estimation 0&1
A. Lopez-Montes
IITA
M_Bi
Mealybug incidence computation %
Sett-N
Tubers planted counting/plot
IITA
A.Amele
Laurent Adinsi
Boiled yam stickness scale 0-100
FSA-UAC, BÃˆnin
A.Amele
Fruit index computation 0 to 1
IITA
Absent
0
End of flowering time computation in days
A. Lopez-Montes
IITA
Dayendflr
Laurent Adinsi
Boiled yam sweetness 0-100
FSA-UAC, BÃˆnin
Foliage senescence time estimation in yy/mm/dd
DateHS
IITA
A.Amele
Stem height measurement in m
IITA
A.Amele
Oval
2
A.Amele
Crossing date esimation in yy/mm/dd
Polldate
IITA
First leaf emergence time estimation in yy/mm/dd
IITA
A.Amele
Twining direction estimation 1-2
A. Amele
IITA
Cohesiveness estimation 1-3
IITA
A.Amele
2
oxidizes between 1 and 2 minure after cutting
Purple
4
very sweet
5
IITA
A.Amele
Smoothness estimation 1-3
No brown
0
IITA
A.Amele
INODL
Internode length computation in cm
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
Btl_I
Leaf beetle damage incidence computation %
Upper surface vein color estimation 1-4
IITA
A.Amele
IITA
A.Amele
Medium tubers per plant computation
Total tubers per plot computation
IITA
A.Amele
IITA
A.Amele
Spine base color estimation nominal 0&1
4
Fully smooth
Mature leaf color estimation 1-5
IITA
A.Amele
IITA
A.Amele
Times to fruit maturity computation in days
DFM
very attractive
3
Laurent Adinsi
Boiled yam crumbness scale 0-100
FSA-UAC, BÃˆnin
Smooth
1
IITA
Tuber oxidation estimation 1-3
Oxid
A.Amele
IITA
A.Amele
Leaf shape estimation 1-7
Difficult to cut
100
100
Pure white
SECSP
IITA
A.Amele
Secondary sprouting estimation nominal 0&1
IITA
A.Amele
Vine cutting establishment rate percentage
Profuse (plant producing many more flowers mostly 30 to 50 inflorescences per plant)
7
A. Lopez-Montes
IITA
R_kns
Root knot nematode severity estimation in 1-5
Spines on sprout presence estimation nominal 0&1
IITA
A.Amele
Number of branches per plant count
IITA
A.Amele
0
not uniform
1
dislikeextremely
DtendFlr
A. Lopez-Montes
End of flowering time estimation in yy/mm/dd
IITA
Dorm
A. Lopez-Montes
Tuber dormancy period estimation
IITA
IITA
A.Amele
Leaf width measurement in cm
1
dislikeextremely
Boiled yam appearance estimation 1-5 scale
IITA
Appearance_BY
A.mele
AnthracInc
A. Lopez-Montes
IITA
yam anthracnose disease incidence computation %
moderately attractive
2
1
Yes
Tuber thorniness estimation 0&1
A. Lopez-Montes
IITA
Thorn
uniform
1
Mtbrwidth
Medium tuber width computation in cm
IITA
A.Amele
Monoecious female(f>m)
4
White
1
0
Low
Intensity of tuber flesh oxidation estimation 0-3
IITA
A.Amele
IITA
A.Amele
Stem hairiness estimation 0-2
IITA
Field establishment rate compuation in %
A.Amele
Estbp-ratio
IITA
A.Amele
Flesh oxidation color estimation 1-4
Present
1
IITA
A.Amele
GH
Plant type estimation 1-3
A. Lopez-Montes
IITA
TDMC
Dry matter content percentage
Thorny (small prominences ending in a small thorn)
3
Number of dry rot tubers count
IITA
A.Amele
IITA
A.Amele
Fiber estimation 1-2
Dayaetbrin
IITA
Times to bulbil initiation computation
A.Amele
IITA
A.Amele
Leaf length measurement in cm
No_stdh
Plant stand harvested count
A. Lopez-Montes
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
VRSS
virus severity estimation in 1-5
IITA
Stem color estimatiion 1-5
IITA
A.Amele
100
Bitter
2
Pale green
A.mele
IITA
Appearance_PY
Pounded yam appearance estimation 1-3 scale
A.Amele
Lower surface vein color estimation 1-4
IITA
IITA
50% sprout emergence time estimation in yy/mm/dd
DtFemer
A.Amele
Pounded yam texture estimation 1-3 scale
IITA
A.mele
Txt_PY
5
like extremely
Very Late (all the plants in a plot still show green foliage (green leaf and vine)
1
TBRL
Average tuber length measurement in cm
IITA
A.Amele
True seeds harvested/cross counting
IITA
A.Amele
Botseed
IITA
A.Amele
Petiole length measurement in cm
IITA
A.Amele
Leaf position estiamtion 1-3
5
Intermediate
Fruit set number estimation 1-3
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
FRTINT
IITA
A.Amele
Big tubers per plant computation
3
Low (flowering is scare with the presence of few flowers mostly less than 10 inflorescences per plant)
Tuber surface texture estimation 1-2
A. Lopez-Montes
IITA
Laurent Adinsi
Boiled yam odour scale 0-100
FSA-UAC, BÃˆnin
Laurent Adinsi
FSA-UAC, BÃˆnin
Boiled yam hardness scale 0-100
Fruit development status estimation 1-2
IITA
A.Amele
3
Neither like nor dislike
yam starch breakdown RVT
IITA
A.Amele
Laurent Adinsi
FSA-UAC, BÃˆnin
Boiled yam purpleness scale 0-100
IITA
A.Amele
Established plants counting/plot
Estbp-N
Seeds germinated counting
IITA
A.Amele
Big tuber width computation in cm
Btbrwidth
IITA
A.Amele
IITA
A.Amele
Tuber yield adjusted computation in t/ha
4
Long (More than 50% of the tubers sprouted at three month after harvesting time)
Big tubers per plot counting number
IITA
A.Amele
FSA-UAC, BÃˆnin
Boiled yam bitter after taste 0-100
Laurent Adinsi
Easy
100
Weight of small tubers per plot measurement in kg
IITA
A.Amele
Stbrwt
Vine cuttings planted count
IITA
A.Amele
A.Amele
Fruit maturity time estimation in yy/mm/dd
IITA
IITA
A.Amele
Internode length measurement in cm
Male flower
1
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
Tuber beetle severity estimation in 1-5
Tbets
Hairy (few scattered or many roots in the surface of the tuber)
2
IITA
Aetbrpl
A.Amele
Bulbils per plant computation
A. Lopez-Montes
IITA
Tuber dry rot severity estimation 0-4
S_Brs
Seeds germination start time estimation in yy/mm/dd
IITA
A.Amele
DAFGR
First inflorescence initiation time computation
IITA
A.Amele
IITA
A.Amele
Tuber surface crack estimation 0-3
A.Amele
Rotten tubers per plot counting number
IITA
NRDT
100
Brown
IITA
A.Amele
Total tubers per plant computation
Aetbrshap
Shape of bulbil estimation 1-4
IITA
A.Amele
4
like
A.Amele
Weight of big tubers per plant measurement in kg
MTWPL
IITA
4
Irregular
Leaf apex shape estimation 1-3
IITA
A.Amele
Separability of corm estimation binary 0&1
IITA
A.Amele
cormsep
Young leaf color estimation 1-5
IITA
A.Amele
Tuber shape estimation 1-4
A. Lopez-Montes
IITA
TUBSHA
A.Amele
Inflorescence type estimation
IITA
early (The plants have senescent foliage (75% of the plants in a plot with 50% leaves showing sign of yellowing but the vines still green)
7
5
like extremely
Spines on stem estimation 0-2
IITA
A.Amele
Flowering intensity estimation 0-9
A. Lopez-Montes
IITA
FLRI
IITA
DM
A.Amele
Time to 50% foliage senescence computation in days
IITA
A.Amele
Weight of small tuber per plant computation kgplant
Tuber flesh color middle portion estimation 1-9
A. Lopez-Montes
IITA
Flcolr_middle
0
Not granular
Appearance of tuber surface estimation 1-4
A. Lopez-Montes
IITA
Emerged plants counting/plot
IITA
A.Amele
fruit set number percentage
A. Lopez-Montes
IITA
IITA
A.Amele
Tuber flesh texture estimation 1-3
2
dislike
Sweet
100
Bulbil yield estimation in t/ha
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
AetbrYld
Seed index computation 0 to 1
IITA
A.Amele
Neutral
3
Taste estimation 1-5
Con_Taste_PY
A. Lopez-Montes
IITA
2
intermediate
no thorns or spines on tuber surface
0
5
Severe necrosis and death of the plant. Coalesced spots with dry tissue more than 1.5 cm of diameter and covering a great proprotion of the leaf surface. Yellowing of the gree tissue is generalised in the leaf blade.
like extremely
5
Seeds sown/family counting
IITA
A.Amele
Pollinated florets counting
A. Lopez-Montes
IITA
Female flowering intensity per spike estimation 1-4
fflrab
IITA
A.Amele
Scale insect infestation estimation 0-2
IITA
A.Amele
9
very early (The plants are completely senescent, yellowing is complete and uniform (both leaves and vines 100% senescence)
GR
A. Lopez-Montes
IITA
Seed germination rate percentage
0
Absent
A.Amele
Maturity time estimation GGD
IITA
1
aborted flower. Presence of small or rudimentary inflorescences/flowers that can show an abortion or abscission point at joint of the pedicel
IITA
A.Amele
Big tuber yield adjusted computation in t/ha
Purple
5
5
Medium (50% of the plants are still green or on the onset of senescence. Only 50% plants in a plot with 25% of the leaves showing senescence or slight yellowing
A.Amele
Stbrwidth
Small tuber width computation in cm
IITA
Tuber thorniness intensity estimation 0-7
IITA
A.Amele
3
Low
Laurent Adinsi
FSA-UAC, BÃˆnin
Boiled yam brownness scale 0-100
Neither like nor dislike
3
Seedling establishment rate percentage
sder
A. Lopez-Montes
IITA
Medium tubers per plot counting number
IITA
A.Amele
2
dislike
Non flowering
0
1
Few
First sprout emergence time estimation in yy/mm/dd
Emerdt
IITA
A.Amele
0
Easy to cut
A. Lopez-Montes
IITA
Big tuber yield computation in t/ha
A. Lopez-Montes
IITA
Bulbil presence estimation 0&1
AeTuber
creamy
6
Number of internodes to first branching computation/plot
IITA
A.Amele
3
soft or smooth
3
Not sticky
1
No visible symptoms of anthracnose disease or infection spot on the leaf surface
76-100% tuber skin showing symptoms
4
entity
1
not attractive
Purplish white
5
0
Not crumby
Yam ontology
sticky
1
2
Slightly bitter
100
Crumby
A. Lopez-Montes
IITA
Matfrt
Fruits harvested per cross counting
4
Purplish green
Fibers
100
A.Amele
Time to 50% foliage senescence estimation in yy/mm/dd
DATS
IITA
4
like
Anthracnose symptoms covering ~26 t0 ~50% of the plant. One or two spots of more than 1 cm diameter width, and dry tissue on the leaf surface. Small dark and no dried spots with more than 1 cm width, are present
3
TubYld
Total tuber yield computation in t/ha
IITA
A.Amele
Symptom on >51% of the plant. Coalesced spots with dry tissue and covering a signifcant proprotion of the leaf surface. Areas with less than 1 cm width are coalescing to bigger spots also. Yellowing of green tissue is intense around the spots areas.
4
0
Absent
MatC
IITA
A.Amele
Senescence class estimation 1-9
Absent
0
7
brownish white
oxidizes more than 3 minutes
3
1
oxidizes less than a minure
deep purple
8
no oxidization
0
0
Off white
Many
2
1-25% tuber skin showing symptoms
1
4
like
2
26-50% tuber skin showing symptoms
3
51-75% tuber skin showing symptoms
Late (75% of the plants in a plot with still green foliage but few plants (upto 25% plants in a plot) showing up to 25% of leaves senescence
3
2
Creamy white
Boiled yam black spots presence scale 0-100
Laurent Adinsi
FSA-UAC, BÃˆnin
strong or hard or lumpy
1
0
Abesnt
A.Amele
IITA
AetbrwtPl
Bulbil yield per plant measurement in kg
Many thorns or spines on tuber surface
7
0
No
Sticky
100
5
like extremely
Non sticky
0
7
High
2
slightly sticky
9
Extremely pofuse (plant producing with abundant flowring mostly more than 50 inflorescences per plant)
0
No fibers
orange
9
4
like
Yellowish
1
100
Purple
2
female flower
High
100
No flower or bud. No inflorescence and not flowering at all
0
0
No purple
1
very bitter
highly oxidizing
3
attribute
Cylindrical
3
1
Spherical
Rough
2
acronym
TTWPL
Total fresh weight of all category or size tubers per plant
Total tuber weight per plant
weight
Reaction of the total plants per plot to the virus infection, producing yellow mottle, mosaic and leaves deformation
Virus incidence
Virus incidence
VirusInc
Times fruit formation or set on monoeciuse or femal flowers of dioeciouse yam plants
Frtset
Time to fruit setting
Fruiting ability
Fruit developed number
Number
Quantity of developed fruits per crosses
Nfrts
Boiled yam granuleness
BoilYamMthGran
Refers to the presence of small grains during chewing
Granuliness in mouth
TTYNA
Total tuber yield
yield
Total tuber yield nonadjusted tons per hectare
Record the smoothness or roughness of tuber skin in visual scale
Tuber surface texture - Estimation
Anthracnose severity
YADS
Yam anthracnose disease severity
Anthracnose severity caused by the pathogen Colletotricum gloeosporioides. The reaction of plants in a plot to anthracnose infestation (blight or leaf spot) under screenhouse or in the field under natural infestation or artificial inoculation
Record leaf shape of mature plants in a plot
Leaf shape-Estimation
fruiting ratio
Fruit index is an estimation of pollinated flowers developing physiologically mature fruits
Fruit index
Presenceof ?ber strands
Presence of fiber strands
fbrpdym
Fibrousness of pounded yam
plants per plot
Floret pollinated number - Counting
Count the number of pollinated florets per female parent per cross
Vestrat
establishment rate
Proportion of vine cuttings established well that producing shoots
Vine cutting establishment rate
Tuber size
Size
Tuber size
TbrSz
Times to the first leaf emergence on sprouted shoot (vines)-Computation
Compute the number of days required from first sprout emergence to the first leaf to emerge on a sprouted shoot (vine) in a plot
Tuber beetle incidence - Computation
Compute the proportion tubers with tubers beetle damage from the total number of harvested tubers in the effective plot at harvesting time.
Presence of colored spots at the spine base of sprouted shoots (vine) with spines
colored spot
SPBCOL
Presence of spot on spine base
TubDorm
Dormancy period
Tuber dormancy period
Tuber dormancy period
Time last seed germination occurred
germend
Seeds germination end time
germination ending time
diameter
Stem diameter of a mature plant (5 to 6 month old plant)
STMDM
Stem diameter
Weight
RDTW
Weight of rotten/diseased tubers
Rotten tuber weight
Record the intensity of tuber hairs or secondary roots on the surface of harvested tubers
Hairiness of tuber bark - Estimation
TastePndedYam
Taste of pounded yam when eaten without any additional complementary food
Taste of pounded yam
taste
Purpleness scale 0-100
Twining direction
Twining direction
twndir
twining direction
Record the fresh weight of harvested bulbil or aerial tuber per net plot
Bulbil yield (Plot weight) - Measurement
Record of the existance of colored spot at base of spines on a sprout (vine)
Colored spots on spine base-Estimation
1-3 scale
Medium size tubers per plot
Number
NMTP
Number of medium size tubers that weighing ? 0.5kg and <1 kg in a net plot or unit area
1-7 general scale
Calculated as total tuber weight per plot divided by total number of tubers per plot
Average tuber weight -computation
Score corm status of tubers using a binary scale
Corm on tubers-Estimation
number
Quantity of Female spikes where flowers has been pollinated using male flower from a monoecious or dioecious parent
NPollSpk
Pollinated spikes number
tons/ha
Pollinated florets number
number
NpollF
Quantity of Female Flowers which has been pollinated using male flower from a monoecious or dioecious parent
Growing degere days to maturity-Estimation
Compute number of growing degree days required from planting (or 50% emergence) to 50% foliage senescence or maturity.
Number of bulbil
Number of bulbils or aerial tubers produced
Bulbpl
Number
days
status
Status of fruit development
FrtDev
Fruit development status on monoecious and female flower of dioeciouse yam plant
BoilYamBitteraft
Boiled yam bitter after taste
During chewing, bitter taste after swallowing, eg there is a light bitter aftertaste
Bitterness after taste
Number of internode-computation
Compute average number of internodes to first branching of at least five plants internode counts taken in a plot
1-7 scale
Dormancy period -Estimation
Assess the proportion of sprouted tubers at different time interval (once a week) from harvesting up to three months after harvesting and rate the dormancy period in scale
Compute the proportion of virus symptomatic individuals or their parts or commonly the portion of plant units in a plot. Take virus incidence recording thrice: First inspection at 8 to 10 weeks after planting and second inspection after 4 to 6 weeks after first inspection for virus symptoms and the third and final inspection 4 to 6 weeks after the second inspection .
Viruses infection incidence - Computation
1-5 scale
Internode length -computation
Measure the internode length of five plants before senescence at 1 meter height and record the average
Leaf apex shape-Estimation
Record leaf apex shape of mature plants in a plot
Springiness of pounded yam-Estimation
Score the distance to which the deformed material can be or degree of stretchabiliy pounded yam in intesity scale
Tbrwd
Wideth
Tuber width
Average width of all size tubers harvested in a net plot or unit area
Determination of predominant size of the tuber in the entire family
Tuber size - Estimation
Seed index
seed set ratio
Seed index is an estimation of pollinated flowers producing seeds
Record the predominant color of stem on mature plant at five to six month after emergence using a five color scale
Stem color - Estimation
MbugInc
Mealybug tuber infestation incidence
Incidence of mealybug tuber infestation.
Mealybug tuber infestation incidence
1-3 scale
Length of medium size tubers-Computation
Measure the length of at most five medium size tubers (?500 gm and <1kg ) from base to tip in a net plot at harvest and record the average
Measure the length of petiole using measuring tape on sampled 20 adult leaves ( four leaves per plant on at leat five plants in a plot), and record the average length
Petiole length - Computation
Tuber number/plot
Total tuber yield adjusted-computation
Computed as total tubers weight per plant multiplied by planting density and result divided by 1000
Sensory test of how soft or hard, smooth or lumpy when boiled yam sensed during mastication in mouth or feeling with hand
Texture of boiled yam-Estimation
Bitterness 0-100
TIMbulb
Bulbil initiation time
Time to bulbil initiation
duration
number of seed
Root knot nematode severity
Root knot severity caused by Meloidogyne spp.
RKNSev
Root knot nematode severity
tuber number/plant
Tbrappr
Tuber appearance
Tuber surface look in relation to presence or absence of roots, thorns and sprouted buds on the tuber surface
Appearance
Anthracnose incidence - Estimation
Compute the proportion of anthracnose damaged individuals or their parts , commonly the portion of plant units in a plot. Count anthracnose disease ?blight? or leaf spot affected plants in plot twice (First inspection at 10 to 12 weeks post planting and second inspection after 2 to 4 weeks before harvesting ) and compute the proportion of damanged
Leaf width - computation
Measure the width from the widest part of leaf using a measuring tape on sampled 20 adult leaves ( four leaves per plant on at leat five plants in a plot), and record the average width
pollination time
Date crossing or pollination attempted
Crossing date
datcross
Fruits developed number - Counting
Record the number of developed fruits or fruit set in pollinated flowers/inflorescence
Pounded yam texture
texture
The physical attributes of pounded yam such as soft or hard/strong , smooth or lumpy when sensed by touch in mouth or with hands
txtpoundedyam
Stand harvested number
NPH
Number of plants harvested
number
Date end of seed germination-Estimation
Record date the last seed germination observed per cross or family
Observe the type of inflorescence and score it
Inflorescence type-Estimation
First sprout emergence time
TIMFSE
First emergence time
Time to the first sprout (plant) emerge in a plot
50% flowering time - Estimation
Record time (date) 50% plants in a plot are having at least one flower/inflorescence
First inflorescence time - Compuation
Compute the number of days required to first inflorescence emergence in a plot
Tuber surface appearance - Estimation
Observe the appearance of roots, thones and srout buds on surface of harvested tubers and make visual score using scale
Time when 50% of the plants flower in a plot
TIMFL
Time to 50% flowering
50% flowering time
NFrtSet
Intensity or proportion of fruit set or development under open or controlled pollination.
Fruit set number
Proportion
Twining direction-Estimation
Record the twining or climbing direction of the vine
1-3 general scale
0-3 scale
Compute by dividing fresh weight measurement of all categroy/size tubers taken in a plot to the number of harvested plant in a net plot
Total tuber fresh weight per plant-computation
Canopy architecture - Estimation
Determination of predominant canopy architecture
m
1-5 scale
Big size tuber width
Length
Average width of big size tubers harvested in a net plot or unit area
Btbrwd
Time to the first leaf emergence on a plant or sprouted shoot (vine) in a plot
emergence time
TIMLE
Time to first leaf emergence
Count number of aerial tubers or vine bulbils on plants in a net plot and compute the average number bulbils per plant
Number of bulbil - Computation
Length of small size tubers-Computation
Measure the length of at most five small size tubers (<500 gm) from base to tip in a net plot at harvest and record the average
cm
BoilYamMthChew
Boiled yam easiness to chew
Ease of chewing
Property related to the number of chews necessary to swallow the product
Tubers (seed yams or setts) planted - Counting
Count the number of tubers (seed yams or setts) planted per plot (unit area)
After breaking or cutting, breaking or crumbling, evaluate the intensity of fine fibers between the fingers and visible to the eye
Texture in the hand method
Compute the proportion dry rot tubers from the total number of harvested tubers per effective plot
Tuber dry rot incidence - Computation
Big size tubers fresh weight per plot- measurement
Record the weight of big size ( ?1 kg) tubers in a net plot
Internode length
Internode length
Intndlngth
length
Grade of reaction of the plant to the viruses infection, varying from mottle, mosaics until total leaves deformation
Virus severity
Virus severity
VirusSev
BoilYamWhit
Whiteness
Boiled yam whiteness
Both inner and outer colour can range from light yellowish (off-white) to white (pure white)
Corm size-Estimation
Record corm size in relation to tuber size using three scale
Record the tendency of vine to twine or climb
Twining habit-Estimation
Senescence time
Foliage senescence time
TIMfsen
Time to all plants in a plot or unit area show full or complete foliage senescence
Presence of fiber strand-Estimation
Score the presence or absence of ?ber strands on pounded yam
Size
Size of corm in relation to tuber
Corm size
corsz
Times to first sprout emergence-Computation
Compute the number of days required from date of planting to the date first sprout or plant in a plot or unit area emerged
Count the number of pollinated spikes per female parent per cross
Pollinated spike number - Estimation
Record the weight of medium size ( ? 500 gm and <1 kg) tubers in a net plot
Medium size tubers fresh weight per plot -measurement
Percentage
Sprout hairiness
HAIRSP
hairiness
Hairs on sprout (vines)
Dry rot caused by nematodes (Scutellonema bradys and Practylenchus spp.) in tubers at harvest
Yam tuber dry rot severity
Dryrot
Dry rot severity
Count the number of branches above ground on at least five mature plants in a plot and record the average
Number of branchs - computation
TIMSE
50% sprout emergence time
Time to 50% sprouts (plants) emerge in a plot
50% emergence time
Medium size tubers harvested number- counting
Count the number of tubers in a plot weighing ? 500 gm and <1 kg harvested per effective plot
scale_of
Datfsen
Senescence time
Foliage senescence time
Time to all plants in a plot or unit area show full or complete foliage senescence
BoilYamPurp
Boiled yam purpleness
Purple colour tending to pink after cooking
Purpleness
Crazy roots presence on tubers at harvest-Estimation
Record appearance of crazy roots on tuber surface at harvest
Hairiness of leaf surface
Leaf hairiness
llfhair
hairiness
Leaf beetle severity - Estimation
Assess the leaf beetle infestation at two and five months after planting and record its severity
STW
Weight
Small size tubers weight per plot
Weight of small size tubers ( <0.5kg ) in a net plot or unit area
Time 50% of sprout emergence-Estimation
Record date 50% of sprouts in a plot emerged
Presence of spines on sprout (vines)
Spines on sprout presence
SPNSP
Presense
yield
Total tuber yield adjusted
TTYA
Total tuber yield adjusted tons per hectare
rvt
Black spots presence scale 0-100
Total tuber fresh weight per plot -computation
Compute the sum all category or size of tubers (Big, medium, small size, and rotten and diseased) fresh weight per plot
Time of fruit harvesting
Time to fruit harvesting
Harvesting ime
DateFH
Tsurvrat
Survival rate
Establishment rate of seedlings four weeks after transplanting operation
Seedling transplant survival rate
Dryrot
Yam tuber dry rot incidence
Dry rot caused by nematodes (Scutellonema bradys and Practylenchus spp.) in tubers at harvest
Dry rot incidence
Length
Medium size tuber width
Average width of medium size tubers harvested in a net plot or unit area
Mtbrwd
Compute the proportion tubers showing root knot nematode symptoms from the total number of harvested tubers in effective plot
Root knot nematode incidence - Computation
Established plants
Number of well established plants ( plants growing with good vigour and without severe constraints) in a plot
Number
NESP
Leaf hairiness - Estimation
Assess hairiness of leaf surface (lower part)
sderat
Seedling Establishment rate
Establishment rate of seedlings
Establishment rate
Score the degree to which particles of a pounded yam stick together or how moldable it is using intensity scale
Cohesiveness of pounded yam- Estimation
Emerged sprouts -Counting
Count the emerged plants (sprouts) per plot every week starting from first plant/sprout emergence date till the last plant or spourt emerge in a plot
Record time in minutes lasted for cut tuber flesh to become or not oxidized and score in scale
Tuber oxidation-Estimation
Basic bitter taste like small quantity of quinine or caffeine in water
Boiled yam bitterness
BoilYamBitt
Bitterness
Incidence of leaf beetle damage.
Leaf beetle damage incidence
Lfbtinc
Leaf beetle incidence
Seeds sown
Quantity of botanical or true seeds sown per family or cross
Number
Sdsown
petlngth
Lengh
Petiole length
Length of petiole
Appearance of pounded yam-Estimation
Observe the appearance (structure and pigmentation) of pouned yam and make visual score using scale how attractive or appealing on table or plate to eat
Measure the length of at most five big size tubers (?1kg) from base to tip in a net plot at harvest and record the average
Length of big size tubers-Computation
Compute the sum of all category/size tubers (big, medium, small and rotten/diseased) in a net plot
Total tuber harvested number-computation
Plntype
A tendency of a plant to grow in a certain shape and to attain a certain mature height and spread
Plant type
growth habit
Times 90% of fruits attain physiological maturity
TIMFrtM
Maturity time
Time to fruit maturity
Record the uniformity of tuber flesh cross-section color using visual scale at fresh cut during harvest
Tuber flesh cross section color uniformity-estimation
apppoundedyam
Pounded yam appearance
The optical appearance of pouned yam related with surface glossy or dullness and light scattering power of pounded yam structure
appearance
Dry rot caused by nematodes (Scutellonema bradys and Practylenchus spp.) in tubers at harvest
Number
Yam tuber dry rot incidence
Dryrot
Weight
Small size tuber weight per plant
Weight of small size yam per plant
WSTPL
Observe fruit setting or formation of female flowers of monoeciouse and dieciouse plants and rate the ability set for form fruits
Ability to set or form fruts-Estimation
appearance
The optical appearance of boiled yam related with surface glossy or dullness and light scattering power of boiled yam structure
Boiled yam appearance
appboiledyam
Weight
Big size tubers weight per plot
BTW
Weight of big size tubers ( ?1 kg) in a net plot or unit area
Root knot nematode severity estimation in a range from no symptoms to highly severe galling scored in secondary roots of the plant and tubers adventitious roots.
Root knot nematode severity - Estimation
Taste method
After swallowing, observe the feeling or sensation of the bitter taste on the tongue and assess its intensity
Seeds set per fruit
Number of seeds developed per fruit after hand flowers pollination
SdSet
number
Count the number of rotten and/or diseased tubers in effective plot
Rotten tubers in a plot number-counting
Incidence of tuber beetle damage.
Tuber beetle incidence
Tuber beetle incidence
Tubtlinc
germRate
A proportion of sown true (botanical) seed which germinate and produce seedling
germination rate
Seed germination rate
Assess the fruit number as fruiting intensity in categorical scale when more than 50% of the plants set fruits
Fruit set number - Estimation
Basic light sugary taste like a little glucose or sucrose in water solution
BoilYamSweet
Sweetness
Boiled yam sweetness
Smoothnessof the material, i.e., absence of lumps
Smoothness
Smoothness of pounded yam
smthpdym
Take count of the number of seeds set on each fruits and record the average seeds per fruit
Seeds set - Comp
Hair on stem - Estimation
Observe the presence or absence of hairs on stem surface
Big size tuber yield adjusted
yield
Big size tubers yield adjusted tons per hectare
BTYA
Small size tubers fresh weight per plot- measurement
Record the weight of small size ( < 500 gm) tubers in a net plot
Fruit set number - Computation
Compute the fruit set number as proportion of pollinated flowers developing or setting a fruit and expressed in %
Fruit index
Compute the ratio of pollinated florets developing mature fruits
Measure the width of at most five small size tubers (<500 gm) from net plot at wider portion of the tuber using calliper or measuring tape and record the average
Width of small size tubers-Computation
Width of big size tubers-Computation
Measure the width of at most five big size tubers (?1kg) from net plot at wider portion of the tuber using vernier calliper or measuring tape and record the average
Inflorescence initiation time
TIMinflor
Time of first inflorescence initiation
Inflorescence initiation time
Vine cuttings planted
Vine cuttings planted
NVP
number
Compute the number of big size tubers produced per plant using the formula number of big size tuber in a plot divided by the total number of harvested plants
Big size tubers per plant-computation
kg/plant
Presence of bulbil - Estimation
Record the presence and absence of bulbils (aerial tubers) in the vines of yam plant
kg/plot
Medium size tubers weight per plot
Weight
MTW
Weight of medium size tubers (? 0.5kg and <1 kg) in a net plot or unit area
Tuber cracks
Cracks on tuber surface
Cracks
CTBRS
NSTPL
Number
Small size tubers per plant
Number of small size tubers ( <0.5kg) per plant
Fruits/cross
0-4 scale
Compute the number of days required from date of planting to the date 50% of sprouts or plants in a plot emerged
Times to 50% spout emergence-Computation
Compute the ratio of pollinated florets developing seeds
Seed index
1-4 score
Boiled yam Yam flavor
BoilYamOdor
Odour of boiled yam
Yam odour
Oxidation color
Surface color resulting of tuber flesh enzymatic oxidation
Tuber flesh oxidation color
Foxdc
Observe the optical color or pigementation of pounded yam and make visual score using scale how acceptable or appealing on table or plate to eat
Color of pounded yam-Estimation
gm/sett
Rotten tuber fresh weight per plot - Measurement
Record weight of rotten and/or diseased tubers harvested in a net plot
Stickiness of pounded yam - Estimation
Score the sticknes or adhesiveness of pounded yam to consumern fingur using sensory test panelist
Tuber wideth-computation
Compute the average tuber width of all size measurement taken in a net plot
lfwdt
Leaf Width
Width of leaf
width
Record the total number of true seed or botanical seed harvested or obtained per cross or family
Quantity of true seed harvested -Counting
WBTPL
weight
Weight of big size tubers per plant
Big size tuber weight per plant
Tuber beetle severity - Estimation
Tuber beetle severity or intensity estimated usually as number of nymph present in tubers at harvesting time.
Tuber flesh color reading -measurement
Measure the flesh surface color of tuber (head, middle and tail portion) at different time interval (0, 30, 60, 180 minutes after cutting) using colorimeter (a color spectrophotometer) or standard color chart.
Proportion of dry matter in the tuber.
Dry matter content
TubDMC
Tuber dry matter content
Boiled yam brownness
Brown colour of product after cooking
Brownness
BoilYamBrow
Secondary sprouting - estimation
Record emergence of new secondary sprouts from the planted seed tuber/sett in a plot at three months after planting
Mealybug tuber infestation severity
Mealybug tuber infestation severity
Severity of mealybug tuber infestation.
MbugSev
%
ThornInt
Tuber thorniness intensity
Intensity of thorns on the tuber surface
Thorn or spine intesity
Spines on stem density
density
Intensity of spines on stem (vine) above base of mature plant (5 to 6 month old plant)
SPNAB
Tuber surface smoothness
Tuber surface texture
texture
Tbrtxtur
Record time (date) when the plant does not produce more new flowers in a plot
End of flowering time - Estimation
Scoring the most frequent flower sex type when more than 50% of the plants are flowered
Plant or flower sex-Estimation
Number
sdgerm
Quanity of sown true (botanical) seeds germinated per cross or family
Seeds germinated
Weight
Weight of seed tubers (whole seed yams or setts ) planted in a plot or per unit area. Planting material from a tuber is called sett. Seed tuber could be either small, healthy whole tuber or large tubers cut into pieces (sett)
WTP
Weight of planted tubers
number of branch
shape
Lfshp
Leaf shape of plants
Leaf shape
abondance
fflrint
Intensity or abudance of female flowers on spikes/infloresences
Female flowering intensity
Length of leaf
length
lflngth
Leaf length
Vines established-computation
Compute the proportion or ratio of vines cuttings survive and producing shoots from the total of planted vine cuttings
Presence or absence of corm on tuber
Presence
corm
Corm on tuber
Scale insect infestation - Estimation
Observe and score scale insect infestation on tuber at harvest
Taste of pounded yam - Estimation
Score taste of pounded yam using sensory test panalist
Date crossing-Estimation
Record the date crossing made in particular flower of a plant.
Measure the weight of N planted tubers (seed yams or setts) and record the average
Setts or seed yams planted weight - Computation
Tbrfclr
color
Tuber flesh color
The surface color of the yam tuber flesh
Viruses infection severity - Estimation
Observe relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by virus disease and record the severity as a proportion or percentage of plant surface affected using visual five ordinal scale . Predominant severity per plot must be registered at least thrice : 8 to 10 weeks after planting, 4 to 6 weeks after first scoring and the last scoring at 4 to 6 weeks after the second scoring
Nstem
Stems per plant
number
Number of stems (vines) with leaves and branches per plant
Determination of the predominant shape in the entire family/plot as a unit
Tuber shape - Estimation
Time when 50% of the plants in a plot are showing signs of foliage senescence
50% Senescence time
TIMsen
Time to 50% foliage senescence
Chewingness scale 0-100
Observe the arrangement of leaves on stem or vine and rate it
Leaf position - Estimation
Record date the first seed germination observed per cross or family
Time of first seed germination-Estimation
Flower initaition time - Estimation
Record time (date) of first flower initiation in a plot or the date any of the plants in a plot shows the first flower
Fruits harvested number
FrtHvstN
Number of harvested fruits per cross after physiological maturity
Number
Leaf beetle severity
Severity of leaf beetle damage.
Leaf beetle damage severity
Lfbtsev
Plant Vigor
vigor
PVigor
The vigour of the vine and leaves of the new plant.
Tuber beetle severity
Tuber beetle severity
Severity of tuber beetle damage.
Tubtlsev
The surface color of stem
Stmcol
color
Stem color
1-2 scale
Fibrousness scale 0-100
Number
NEP
Number of an emerged plants (sprouts) in a plot
Number of emerged plants
1-5 scale
Boiled yam taste
Tastebldyam
Taste of boiled yam when eaten without any additional complementary food
taste
branch
Number of branches above ground
Branch number
Number
Foliage senescence time - Computation
Compute the number of days required from sprout emergence or planting to when all plants had fully senesced
Plant type-Estimation
Visual assessment of the tendency of a plant to grow in a certain shape and to attain mature height and spread
Pollination type
Mode of plant to plant pollen transfer
Polltyp
pollination type
Total tubers per plant-computation
Compute as the total number of tubers in a net plot divided by the number of harvested plant per net plot
Seeds germination start time
Time the first seed germination occurred
germstart
germination starting time
Record the corm ability to be separated from tuber in a binary scale
Corm separation from tuber-Estimation
number of bulbils
Time of first leaf emergence on sprouted shoot (vines)-Estimation
Record time of the first leaf emergence on sprouted shoot (vine)
Date (yyyymmdd)
Total tubers per plant
TNTPL
Number
Number of tubers harvested per plant
lfpst
Arrangement of leaves on stem or vine
Leaf position
arrangement
Take count of well established plants in a plot usually at two months after planting
Number of well established plants -Counting
Bulbil shape-Estimation
Record shape of bulbils or aerial tubers in scale
Medium size tuber length
Average length of medium size tubers harvested in a net plot or unit area
Length
Mtbrleng
Leaf apex shape
Leaf apex shape
Lfapx
shape
txtboiledyam
Boiled yam texture
The physical attributes of boiled yam such as soft or hard/strong , smooth or lumpy when sensed by touch in mouth or with hands
texture
The number of leaves on a plant
Number of leaves
Number
Nlfyp
bulbil/plant
Compute the number of days required for 50% of the plants in a plot showing foliage senescence
Time to 50% foliage senescence time - Computation
Stbrwd
Average width of small size tubers harvested in a net plot or unit area
Length
Small size tuber width
Spleng
Sprout length
Length of sprouted shoots (vines)
length
Weight of medium size tuber yam per plant
weight
Medium size tuber weight per plant
WMTPL
Corm type-Estimation
Record the corm type as regular, transversally elongated or brached using scale
Pounded yam aroma
aroma
arompoundedyam
The sense of smell or odor of pounded yam that reaches the nose before eating or the pounded yam reaches the mouth
Compute the number of days required from 50% of sprouts in plot emerged to 50% of plants in a plot are having at least one flower/inflorescence
50% flowering time - Computation
Tuber flesh oxidation color-Estimation
Record the flesh enzymatic oxidation color using color scale
Put the product between the molars and mash it to assess the number of chews before swallowing
Texture in the mouth method
Aroma of pounded yam-Estimation
Assess the small or odour the pounded yam that sensed at the nose before the yam reaches mouth and make sensory score using scale how appetizing or appealing the pounded yam to eat
Proportion
Proportion of plants /sprouts emerged in a plot
PPE
Proportion of emerged plants
Seedling tranplant survival rate-computation
Compute the proportion of seedlings survived or established well after transplant operation
Record the date when all plants in a plot shows a sign of 100% foliage senescence
Foliage senescence time - Estimation
Compute average tuber length of all size tubers measurement taken in a net plot
Tuber length-Computation
Dry rot caused by nematodes (Scutellonema bradys and Practylenchus spp.) in tubers at harvest
Dryrot
Yam tuber dry rot presence
Dry rot presence
Observe the surface of product and evaluate the frequency/number of the black points
Appearance method
Number of Leaves - Computation
Count the number of leaves on at least five young plants in a plot at 30 days after emergence and record the average
TNTP
Total tubers per plot
Number
Number of total (all size) tubers in a net plot or unit area
Type
cortyp
Corm type
Corm type
Root knot incidence caused by Meloidogyne spp.
RKNInc
Root knot nematode damage incidence
Root knot nematode incidence
Computing the number of days required from first sprout emergence to first flower initiation
Flower initaition time - Computation
Big size tuber length
Btbrleng
Average length of big size tubers harvested in a net plot or unit area
Length
Sprout length-computation
Compute the average sprout length of five representative plants measurement taken in a plot
Thorniness
Tuber thorniness
Exsistence of thorns on the tuber surface
Thorn
kg
Leaf length - computation
Measure the length from lobes to the tip using a measuring tape on sampled 20 adult leaves ( four leaves per plant and at leat five plants on a plot), and record the average length
Color of the sprout (vine and leaves).
Sprout color
SprtCol
color
Color or pigmentation of leaf vein
vein color
Vein color
lveincol
0-4 general scale
separation
corsep
Corm separation from tuber
Corm separability from tuber
Tuber yield no adjusted- Computation
Computed as total tuber weight per plot divided by size of net or effective harvest plot and result multiplied by 10
Stickness scale 0-100
Optical color or pigmentation of pounded yam
Pounded yam color
colpoundedyam
color
Anthracnose incidence caused by the pathogen Colletotricum gloeosporioides. % of anthracnose ?blight? or leaf spotaffected plants in a plot
Yam anthracnose disease incidence
YADI
Anthracnose incidence
number of fruit
Smoothness of pounded yam- Estimation
Score the smoothnessof the pounded yam , i.e., absence of lumps by finger feeling and using intensity scale
color
The leaf surface color or pigmentation
Leaf color
mlfcol
Number of true seed harvested or obained per cross or family
True seeds harvested
Number
Tsdh
Score the degree of fruit development in scale
Fruit development intensity-Estimation
Bulbil
Bulbil presence
Presence of bulbils or aerial tubers in the nodes of the vines
Presence of bulbil
Average weight of big size tubers in kg
Average weigth of big size tuber
Weight
AWBT
Weight
ATW
Average tuber weight
Average tuber weight in kg
Boiled yam crumbness
Property of the product to crumble or break between the fingers
BoilYamHdCrum
Crumbness in hand
Scalisec
Scale insect infestation on tubers at harvest
Scale insect infestation
scale insect infestation
Texture of pounded yam-Estimation
Sensory test of how soft or hard, smooth or lumpy when pouned yam sensed during mastication in mouth or feeling with hand
Fruit maturity time - Computation
Compute the number of days required from fruit set to fruit phyisological maturity
Tubers planted
Number of seed tubers planted in a plot or unit area
NTP
Number
Compute the number of medium size tubers produced per plant using the formula number of medium size tuber in a plot divided by the total number of harvested plants
Medium size tubers per plant-computation
Pollination type-Estimation
Record the method used to transfer the pollen grains from the anther of a flower to the stigma of a flower of the same or different plant of the same species
Bulbwtp
Bulbil weight
Weight of vine bulbils or aerial tubers harvest
Weight
Fruit maturity time - Estimation
Record the date 90% of the developed fruits shows sign of physiological maturity (turning brown)
Record the degree of thorns or spines on tuber surface in visual scale
Tuber thorniness intensity-Estimation
Yam starch breakdown
starch
The breakdown of yam starch extracted from fresh tubers were determined using a Rapid Visco-Analyser (RVA-TecMaster, Perten Instruments, Australia)
starchbrk
Select at least five random whole tubers from a net plot and cut small slices (1-2 mm) from proximal, middle and distal portion and mixed thoroughly. Record fresh weight and determin dry weight of samples by drying at 70âˆžC for 72 h in a forced air oven. A proportion between the dry weight and the fresh weight is calculated.
Tuber dry matter content - Computation
Bulbp
Number
Number of bulbil
Number of bulbils or aerial tubers produced
Assess the color of leaf on a young plant
Leaf color - Estimation
NINFB
Number of internodes to first branching
number
Number of internodes to first branchs on a plant
0-1 scale
Compute by dividing fresh weight measurement of big size tubers taken to the number of harvested plants in a net plot
Big size yam fresh weight per plant- computation
Mealybug tuber severity estimation on infested tubers at time harvesting
Mealybug tuber severity - Estimation
Record date when plant/s having the first inflorescence in a plot
First inflorescence time - Estimation
Color of boiled yam-Estimation
Observe the optical color or pigementation of boiled yam and make visual score using scale how acceptable or appealing on table or plate to eat
Bitterness after taste 0-100
1-5 general scale
Big size yam yield adjusted-computation
Calculated as big size yam tuber weight per per plant mutiplied by planting density and result divided by 1000
Tuber flesh oxidation intensity-Estimation
Score the intensity of tuber flesh oxidation (flesh surface color change) at different time interval (0, 30, 60, 180 minutes after cutting) using scale
Compute the proportion of sown true or botanical seed which germinate and produce seedling ready for transplant , usually observed at three weeks after sowing.
Germination rate - Computation
Femal flowers abundance or intensity per inflorescence-Estimation
Observe the femal flowering intensity or abudance per inflorences and rate
number of fruits
Bulbsp
Shape
Bulbil shape
Predominant shape of the bulbils
Time to end of flowering
End of flowering time or when a plant does not produce new flower in a plot
TIMEF
end of flowering time
Assess the color of leaf vein on the upper surface
Vein color - Estimation
Stickiness of pounded yam
StickPndedYam
The degree to which the pounded yam is adhesive or stick to the fingure, mouth surface and teeth
Stickiness
Cracks on the tuber surface-Estimation
Record appearance of cracks on tuber surface as absent, few and many
Senescence
SE
Foliage senescence or maturity class
Maturity class
TTWP
Total fresh tuber weight per plot
Total fresh weight of all category or size tubers harvested in a net plot
weight
Compute the proportion or ratio of plants/sprouts emerged as the number of emerged plants/sprouts divided by the total number of tubers (seed yam or setts) planted in a plot multiplied by 100
Emerged sprouts or plants proportion-Computation
Record the abundance or intesity of flowering when more than 50% of the plants are flowered in a plot
Flowering intensity - Estimation
Stmht
Stem height
Height or the length of stem
height
Number of stems per plant-computation
Compute average of the number of stems (vines) per established plants in a plot
Big size yam yield
yield
Big size tubers yield nonadjusted tons per hectare
BTYld
1-3 scale
The arrangement of flowers on stem or twig of a plant
Inft
type
Inflorescence type
Compute the number of small size tubers produced per plant using the formula number of small size tuber in a plot divided by the total number of harvested plants
Small size tubers per plant-Computation
Senescence- Estimation
Observe the status of foliage senescence (leaf or vine yellowing) of plants in plot at 6 month onward and rate the maturity status
Bulbyld
Yield
Bulbil yield
Yield of vine bulbils or aerial tubers harvest
Texture of tuber flesh
texture
Txf
Tuber flesh texture
Flrint
Flowering intensity
Abundance or degree of flowering
flowering intensity
Take a whiff and evaluate the intensity of yam odour
Odour method
Tuber flesh color middle portion - Estimation
Observe and record the fresh cut flesh surface color at the middle part of the tuber at harvesting time.
Seedling establishment rate-computation
Compute the proportion of seedlings per family (cross) establish well and ready for transplanting, usually recorded at five weeks after sowing.
0-2 scale
Dry rot presence on harvested tubers-Estimation
Observe the occurance or presence of dry rot caused by nematods (Scutellonema bradys and Practylenchus spp.) on harvested tubers and record the presence and absence
Tuber flesh color head portion - Estimation
Observe and record the fresh cut tuber flesh surface color at the head portion of the tuber at harvesting time.
CRZROOT
Appearance of crazy roots on tuber surface
presence
Crazy roots presence
Organisation or structural arrangements of branchs and leaves distribution giving a specific shape to the above ground part of the plant
Canarc
architecture
Canopy architecture
Utfc
Tuber flesh cross-section color uniformity
Uniformity of tuber flesh surface color in cross-section ( from cortex to center)
color
Record position of appearance of roots at surface to tubers
Position of root appearance on tubers-Estimation
Internode length - computation
Measure the length of internode at 1m height on five (5) plants and record the average
Compute the weight to harvested bulbils per plant
Bulbil yield (fresh weight) per plant-computation
Fruit harvesting time- Estimation
Record the date of fruits harvest in a crossing block or from plant
Number
Small size tubers per plot
NSTP
Number of small size tubers that weighing <0.5kg in a net plot or unit area
Score the severity of dry rot in harvested tubers
Tuber dry rot severity - Estimation
Calculated as weight of big size tubers per plot divided by total number of big size tubers per plot
Big yam tuber average weight-computation
Cohesiveness of pounded yam
cohpdym
Cohesiveness
Degree to which particles of a sample stick together or how moldable it is
number of tubers
Stbrleng
Average length of small size tubers harvested in a net plot or unit area
Length
Small size tuber length
Sprout color - estimation
Record the predominant color of the sprouts (plant) per plot at 20 days after emergence
Stem diameter-computation
Measure the stem diameter at 15 cm above the base of five plants before senescence in a plot and record the average
1-4 scale
Yam odour scale 0-100
Number
Number of big size tubers that weighing ?1 kg in a net plot or unit area
NBTP
Big size tubers per plot
Granuliness 0-100
Medium size yam fresh weight per plant-computation
Compute by dividing fresh weight measurement of medium size tubers taken to the number of harvested plants in a net plot
Variation in leaf mass of the plant
density
Leaf density
Lfden
Appearance of boiled yam-Estimation
Observe the appearance (structure and pigmentation) of boiled yam and make visual score using scale how attractive or appealing on table or plate to eat
Position of appearance of roots at surface of tubers
Place of roots on tubers
Roots position
Prtbs
A 1.7 g portion of starch was mixed with 25 g of distilled water in the RVA sample can, after correction for the original moisture contents of the starches
Starch breakdown-Estimation
Record absence or presence of spines on a sprout (vine)
Spines on sprout base-estimation
Bulbil initiation time - Computation
Compute number of days required from sprout emergence to 50% of plants in a plot start forming bulbils or aerial tubers
Compute the proportion tubers infested with mealybugs from the total number of harvested tubers per effective plot at time of harvesting.
Mealybug tuber incidence - Computation
Record the texture of tuber flesh using scale
Tuber flesh texture-Estimation
1-5 scale
Number of plant
number of leaf
1-9 scale
Record date of 50% plants in a plot are showing foliage senescence
Time to 50% foliage senescence time - Estimation
Bulbil initiaition time - Estimation
Record date when 50% of plants in a plot begin producing bulbils or aerial tubers
Compute the proportion of plants with leaf beetle damage from the total number of plants in the effective plots on leaf beetle damange record taken twice(at two and five months after planting date)
Leaf beetle incidence - Computation
Stem height - computation
Measure the length or height of stem or vine of at least five mature plants in a plot using measuring tape at five to six months after sprout emergence and record the average
BoilYamHdStick
Property related to the adhesion of the product between the fingers
Boiled yam stickness
Stickness in hand
Proportion
Proportion of established plants
Proportion of plants in a plot well established (plantsgrowing with good vigour and without severe constraints)
STRATE
Black points presence
BoilYamBlackspo
Boiled yam surface black points presence
Refers to the presence of small black points on the surface of product
NBTPL
Number of big size tubers ( ?1 kg) per plant
number
Big size tubers per plant
Refers to the presence of fine fibers between the fingers and visible to the eye
Fibrousness in hand
Boiled yam fibrousness
BoilYamHdFibr
Big size yam yield no adjusted- Computation
Calculated as big size yam tuber weight per plot divided by size of effective harvest plot mutiplied by 10
Visual assessment of the plant vigour in a plot at two month after planting
Plant Vigor - Estimation
1-5 scale
Crumbness scale 0-100
Tendency of climbing or trailling
Twining habit
twining habit
TWNH
50% fruit set time-Estimation
Record the date fruit set in 50% of plants in a plot
Tuber predominant shape
TbrSh
Tuber shape
Shape
Observe relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by yam anthracnose disease and record the severity as a proportion or percentage of plant surface affected.It is visual score in scale under screenhouse, artificial inoculation or under field natural infestation. For artificial inoculation use a suspension of three most virulent strains of Colletothrichum gloeosporioides and inoculate the plants raised from vine cutting in vertical sack or other means by spraying. For natural infestation, scores can be taken 10 to 12 weeks after planting and second scoring about 4-6 weeks before harvesting . Artificial inoculation should be scored at 3 days after inoculation(DAI) , and repeated at 7DAI, 11DAI and 15DAI
Anthracnose severity - Estimation
Sweetness 0-100
End of flowering time - Computation
Computing the number of days required from 50% of sprout emergence to when plant does not produce more new flowers.
method_of
Observe the leaf abundance or mass on a mature plant and rate the density
Leaf density - Estimation
Time first sprout emergence-Estimation
Record date of first spout emergence in a plot
Plant sex
Predominat plant or flower sex
sex
Sex
RTBS
Presence of secondary roots on the tuber bark
hairiness
Tuber hairiness
Boiled yam color
color
Optical color or pigmentation of boiled yam
colbldyam
Hairiness of sprout - Estimation
Record existance of hairs on a sprout (vine)
Compute by dividing fresh weight measurement of small size tubers taken to the number of harvested plants in a net plot
Small size yam fresh weight per plant-computation
Medium size tubers per plant
NMTPL
Number of medium size tubers (? 0.5kg and <1 kg) per plant
Number
Field establishment-Computation
Compute the proportion or ratio of well-established plants in a plot from the total number of tubers (seed yam or setts) planted
Intensity of tuber flesh enzymatic oxidation (degree of flesh color change or browning of cut yam tuber)
Tuber flesh oxidation intensity
Oxidation intensity
Intoxd
Secondary sprouting
Emergence of secondary sprouts on a plant
SecSP
Secondary sprouting
Big size tubers harvested number - counting
Count the number of tubers in a plot weighing ?1 kg harvested per effective plot
Force required to cut/break with fork
BoilYamHdHard
Hardness of cutting or breaking
Boiled yam hardness
Flower initiation time
Time of the first flower initiation on a plant/s in a plot or any of the plants in a plot shows the first flower
Time to flower initiation
TIMFlrin
Record the number of germinated seedlings per cross or family
Number of germinated seedling-Counting
Visual assessment of spines on a stem (vine) above the base of mature plants in a plot
Density of spines on stem base of a plant-Etimation
aroma
arombldyam
Boiled yam aroma
The sense of smell or odor of boiled yam that reaches the nose before eating or the boiled yam reaches the mouth
Number
Whiteness scale 0-100
Brownness scale 0-100
0-1 scale
Tfoxd
Enzymatic oxidation rate
Tuber flesh oxidation
Tuber flesh enzymatic oxidation rate
Measure the width of at most five medium size tubers (?500 gm and <1kg )from net plot at wider portion of the tuber using calliper or measuring tape and record the average
Width of medium size tubers-Computation
Plant harvested number - Counting
Counting the number of plants where tubers were harvested in a plot
Tuber thorniness - Estimation
Record the presence or absence of thorns or spines on the tuber skin in visual scale
Take count of dry rot tubers per plot at harvest
Dry rot tuber number-counting
Record the number of harvested fruits per cross
Fruits harvested number - Counting
0-7 scale
Bulbil yield (fresh weight) per hectar- Computation
Computed the yield of bulbil per hectare using the formula.
Number of true seeds sown-counting
Record the number of true seeds sown per cross or family
Vine cuttings planted -counting
Count the numeber vine cuttings planted
Length of time toward crop maturity
Mat
Time to maturity
Maturity time
number of spikes
hairiness
Stem hairiness
Hairiness of stem
stmhair
Feel the taste of boiled yam in mouth and make sensory score using scale how pleasing to the taste
Taste of boiled yam-Estimation
Count the number of tubers in a plot weighing less than 500 gm harvested per effective plot
Small size tubers harvested per plot number - counting
Tuber flesh color lower or tail portion- Estimation
Observe and record fresh cut tuber flesh surface color at the tail portion of the tuber at harvesting time.
0-1 binary scale
Aroma of boiled yam-Estimation
Assess the small or odour the boiled yam that sensed at the nose before the yam reaches mouth and make sensory score using scale how appetizing or appealing the boiled yam to eat
Springiness
Distance to which the deformed material can be sretchable
Springiness of pounded yam
sprgpdym
Tuber length
Average length of all size tubers harvested in a net plot or unit area
Tbrleng
Length
Number of bulbil - Counting
Count the number of aerial tubers or vine bulbils produced per net plot.
GDDâˆžC
Hardness scale 0-100
variable_of
number of florets
0-9 scale
plant per plot