CIMMYT
RABA_M_ngg
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
DMSInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
SteWiltInc_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
TSCSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
OP_M_Mpa
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
DMSev_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
PHFL_M_cm
CIMMYT
GSucrose_M_pct
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CSmutSev_E_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GY_DW_kgPlot
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
DMVInc_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
5
41-50% dead leave area
GW_DW_g200grn
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
200KW
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
HSmutInc_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
DTS
Silk_DT_day
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GProline_M_mgg
BmaySev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GOil_NIRS_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
TslSiz_E_1to3
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
TKW
1000KW
CIMMYT
GW_DW_g1000grn
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
TGW
2
low to moderate level of blasting
CIMMYT
PericCol_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GW_Adj_g100grn
CSSSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
MCob_Ct_plntPlot
CSmutInc_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EW_FW_kgPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
FungDis_E_0to1
CIMMYT
LABA_M_ngg
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
strong to very strong
8
MLNSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GW_DW_g100grn
CIMMYT
100KW
CIMMYT
EndoTrp_M_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
SD
Silk_Date_ymd
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
2
slightly (20%) damaged
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EWormInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
StenSRInc_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
ALBInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
AntAnCol_E_1to9
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
PsacchInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GN_Cmp_grnplnt
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
BCLSSev_E_1to9
GTrp_M_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
resistant, disease symptoms covering up to 20%
2
GABA_M_ugg
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
AstriInc_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
9
red
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
ShellCobW_FW_gPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GMoi_NIRS_pct
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
MLNSev_E_pct
red
3
CLSSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
FusERSev_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
UpESh_E_1to4
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
yellow
4
CIMMYT
CTMInc_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
GRN_Ct_rowear
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
PRI_M_idx
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GGlucose_M_pct
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
NDVI_M_idx
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
BactSRInc_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CharRInc_Ct_plntPlot
3
desirable
indented
2
GTrp_NIRS_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
MSVSev_E_1to9
3
moderately susceptible, disease symptoms covering up to 50%
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
BwSpotSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
3
dark green
short
2
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GMoi_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
RSucrose_M_ngug
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
OA_M_Mpa
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
StdGerm_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
GW_FW_g200grn
4
low to medium infection
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
SteWiltInc_Cmp_pct
DTELSen
ELSen_DT_day
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
TslGlAnCol_E_1to2
AspERSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
MSTVInc_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Ant_Cmp_Cday
CIMMYT
AnthesisGDU
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
BusseolaDmg_E_1to5
1
absent or very weak
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
DiatraeaDmg_E_1to5
CIMMYT
MRFVInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
PH_M_cm
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CSCMSev_E_pct
3
low infection
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
GStarch_M_pct
CIMMYT
DMSInc_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
PERSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GSucrose_M_umolg
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
PHvst_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
StrigaPN_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
white
1
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
ChiloDmg_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EH_M_cm
CIMMYT
pointed
5
primary-secondary-tertiary
3
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
DMSSev_E_1to5
4
semi-soft and semi-opaque grains
CIMMYT
WeevN_Ct_weevil
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
TslAnCol_E_1to5
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
RGlucose_M_ngug
3
dense
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Sen_E_pct
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
BactSRInc_Cmp_pct
DMSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
TslExer_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
cream
2
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
TslBlastSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GCol_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
SLodgInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
SCMVInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
StBorDmg_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CSCInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GY_DW_gPlot
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Aflatox_M_ppb
CIMMYT
TslGlBAnCol_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
TSCSev_E_pct
3
small
2
vigorous
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
LateWiltInc_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
WeevInc_E_1to5
cylindrical
1
FusERSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
BHskCovInc_E_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GLSSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
StemCol_E_1to5
EN_Cmp_earplnt
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GABA_M_pgg
CIMMYT
BLSBSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
PLSSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
2
normal
ELW_M_g
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
conical-cylindrical
2
FmonSRSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
3
dense
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CSucrose_M_umolg
RustSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
CSCMSev_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EWormDmg_M_cm
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GY_Adj_tha
sparse
1
mixed
3
SCMVInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GxE
GY_FW_lbPlot
BmaySev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
5
very weak
GThk_M_mm
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
RProl_M_ugg
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
FungDis_E_text
1
primary
CIMMYT
HskCov_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
HSmutInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EturcSev_E_pct
2
95%
BLSBSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
AflavERSev_E_1to9
9
severe infection
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
LSucrose_M_umolg
3
intermediate germination (30-69%)
CIMMYT
DMSev_E_1to9
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
ERInc_Ct_earPlot
CIMMYT
EDmg_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
SdlngVig_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GUpSSh_E_1to6
4
long
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
EAsp_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
FgramSRInc_Cmp_pct
SmaySev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Shell_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
4
open
EturcSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
HSmutSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
PHTslB_M_cm
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
LErect_E_1to4
CIMMYT
AWormDmg_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
GY_FW_gPlot
StrigaDmg_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
GVitA_M_µgg
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
3
intermediate grain hardness
CIMMYT
ELChl_M_CCI
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
YLChl_M_CCI
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
DMSSev_E_pct
5
highly susceptible, disease symptoms covering >80%
CIMMYT
EWormInc_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CobGlCol_E_1to3
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
AntAnCol_E_1to5
1
no infestation
MD
CIMMYT
Mat_Date_ymd
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
MRDVInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
PsacchInc_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
FmonERSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
FusSRInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
5
very long
good
2
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
FmonSRSev_E_1to5
mottled
7
GxE
EWid_M_mm
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GTyp_E_1to11
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CSCMSev_E_1to9
GWLostWeev_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
GTW_M_lbbsh
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GxE
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
LodgInc_E_1to5
CIMMYT
8
sweet
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
EPo_E_1to3
GY_Adj_kgha
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
TslGlBAnCol_E_1to2
CSmutSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
normal
3
EndoCol_E_1to6
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
dark purple
3
3
moderately (50% ) infested
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
MSVSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
GZinc_M_ppm
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
FmonSRInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
PytSRInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EPo_Cmp_ratio
CIMMYT
regular
1
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
FgramERSev_E_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GY_FW_kgPlot
CIMMYT
GY_FW_tha
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
HSmutSev_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
BmaySev_E_pct
moderate level of blasting
3
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EDia_M_cm
CIMMYT
Ant_DT_day
DTA
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
GRArr_E_1to4
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
SilkAnCol_E_1to5
CIMMYT
3
purple
EW_M_gear
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CSSSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
TslGlAnCol_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
DMVInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
9
very strong
CIMMYT
MCob_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GLys_M_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EndoProt_M_pct
LAsh_M_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GTex_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
1
very short
GAsh_M_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
RLodgInc_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GLSSev_E_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CSmutSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
4
moderate to high level of blasting
ASI_Cmp_day
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
3
red
CRustSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
GLSSev_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
ELSenD
ELSen_Date_ymd
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
CLSSev_E_1to9
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Mat_DT_day
DTM
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
BHskCovInc_Cmp_pct
8
white cap
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GY_RGY_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EShape_E_1to3
grayyish white
2
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
DMVSev_Ct_plntPlot
CobGlAnCol_E_1to9
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
SilkLng_M_cm
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
LateWiltInc_Ct_plntPlot
GAsh_NIRS_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
BSDMInc_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
BLSBSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
LWid_M_cm
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
AphDmg_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
SdlngDisInc_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
RootCapac_M_uF
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
SilkGrwR_Cmp_cmday
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
TRustSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
TslBN_Ct_branch
CIMMYT
TRustSev_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EHvst_Ct_earPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
FmonERSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
TslGlAnCol_E_1to9
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
FusSRInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
BCLSSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
AflavERSev_E_pct
spiral
4
5
very strong
3
pale yellow
ear around mid-plant
2
1
very vigorous
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
LAsh_NIRS_pct
71-80% dead leave area
8
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
ERInc_Cmp_pct
1
unrolled
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
GLng_M_mm
colorless
1
DMJInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
PDMInc_Cmp_pct
100%
1
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
DiabroticaDmg_E_1to5
CIMMYT
GY_FW_kgha
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
bronze
2
AleuCol_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
1
large
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
PpolySev_E_pct
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
RustSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GY_DW_tha
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
MRFVInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
BwSpotSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
MSVInc_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
lax
1
CIMMYT
ELLng_M_cm
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GGlucose_M_ugmg
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
HSmutSev_E_1to9
round
4
PERSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
MRCVInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EturcSev_E_1to5
2
weak
very compact
1
1
no blasting
CIMMYT
RustSev_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
GProt_NIRS_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
ALBInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
MSVSev_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
2
semi-floury (morocho), with an external layer of hard endoseprm.
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
AD
Ant_Date_ymd
CIMMYT
ShellCobW_FW_kgPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CTMInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
ShtPub_E_1to3
CIMMYT
Mat_Cmp_Cday
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
MaturityGDU
CIMMYT
CRustSev_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
BwSpotSev_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
ELng_M_mm
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GxE
CIMMYT
AntAnCol_E_1to2
BHskCovInc_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
LRollSev_E_1to5
FmonERSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
2
irregular
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
PLSSev_E_1to5
2
secondary
purple
4
CIMMYT
CSmutInc_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
5
other
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
PERSev_E_1to9
5
very poor
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
PVig_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
AspERSev_E_pct
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CRustSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
LSucrose_M_mgg
Chl_M_CCI
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
5
purple
purple
4
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
FgramERSev_E_1to9
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
PytSRInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
LGBDmg_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
GNC_M_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
EndoLys_M_pct
CIMMYT
EN_Ct_earPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EW_FW_gPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
7
pop
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
MSTVInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
GY_RelChk_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
SRInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
RLodgInc_Ct_plntPlot
dent
5
1
hard and transparent grains
CT_M_C
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
GW_FW_g100grn
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
7
high infection
present
2
3
semi open
11-20% dead leaf area
2
FmonSRSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
poor
4
CLSSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GY_Rank_number
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
MRDVInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
5
postrate
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Sen_E_0to10
CIMMYT
BusseolaInc_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
SmaySev_E_pct
1
present
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
PDMInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Tillering_Ct_tllrplnt
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
5
severely rolled leaves, undesirable
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
PUnif_E_1to3
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EndoHard_E_1to5
TSCSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
semi-dent
4
GY_DW_kgha
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GIron_M_ppm
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GW_Adj_g200grn
CIMMYT
brown
5
1
green
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
StenSRInc_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
SRInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
EW_DW_kgPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
DMJInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
SCond_M_mmolm2s
CIMMYT
MLNSev_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
moderately (50% ) damaged
3
CIMMYT
MRCVInc_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
brown
5
CIMMYT
TslTyp_E_1to3
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
FgramSRInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
WI_M_idx
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EGrwR_Cmp_gplntday
ELng_M_cm
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
BCLSSev_E_pct
very high level of blasting
5
5
highly (>80%) damaged
PLSSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
AspERSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
0
no dead leaf area
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
SLodgInc_Cmp_pct
1
excellent germination (90-100%)
sun red
2
semi horizontal
3
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
LCol_E_1to5
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
MSVInc_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
PpolySev_E_1to5
GProt_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
1
floury
4
rounded
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
PpolySev_E_1to9
2
turgid leaves
1
white
AflavERSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
PStand_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Shell_Cmp_ratio
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
1
low ear position
CIMMYT
BSDMInc_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
absent
1
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
GW_Adj_g1000grn
GW_FW_g1000grn
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
TslGlBAnCol_E_1to5
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CharRInc_Cmp_pct
51-60% dead leave area
6
4
poor germination (11-29%)
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
TslBW_DW_g
light purple
2
CSCInc_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GOil_M_pct
CIMMYT
21-30% dead leaf area
3
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
AstriInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
5
very poor germination (0-10%)
CIMMYT
FgramERSev_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
9
81-90% dead leave area
CIMMYT
TslOpen_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
6
white cap
1
colorless
semi erect
2
CIMMYT
TslDen_E_1to3
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
FmonSRInc_Cmp_pct
7
61-70% dead leave area
reddish
4
straight
3
1
flint
semi-flint
2
intermediate
2
CSSSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
1-10% dead leaf area
1
3
intermediate
CIMMYT
LLng_M_cm
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
medium to high infection
6
very low infection
2
light green
1
4
susceptible, disease symptoms covering upto 70%
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
TRustSev_E_pct
3
cylindrical
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
FusERSev_E_pct
GWid_M_mm
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
1
white
1
highly resistant, clean no (%) infection
shrunken
1
clean, no damage
1
absent
1
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
DMSSev_E_1to9
5
medium
5
Semi-flint, flint with a soft cap
soft and opaque grains
5
4
Significantly (70%) damaged
3
dent
3
intermediate
weak to medium
4
high ear position
3
4
Significantly (70%) infested
9
Opaque 2/QPM
5
severly infested
6
flint
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
SmaySev_E_1to5
very high infection
8
2
green
4
weak
31-40% dead leaf area
4
2
yellow
good germination (70-89%)
2
strongly pointed
6
6
orange
entity
conical
1
4
strong
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
LProline_M_ugg
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
PAsp_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
SdlngDisInc_Ct_plntPlot
MAIZE ontology
red
3
semi-hard and semi-transparent grains
2
2
very weak to weak
erect
1
4
not severely rolled leaves
orange
5
medium
2
3
level
attribute
drooping
4
other
5
2
slightly (20%) infested
4
variegated
strong
7
brown
4
2
compact
absent
0
3
weak
2
cylindrical-conical
excellent
1
6
medium to strong
3
medium
3
conical
3
medium
no infection
1
medium infection
5
4
Semi-dent, intermediate between dent and flint but closer to dent
acronym
Mal de rio cuarto virus incidence
MRCVInc
Mal de rio cuarto virus incidence
Mal de rio cuarto virus (MRCV) incidence.
MRDVInc - Computation
Divide the total number of MRDV damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
TslDen - Estimation
Standard method for tassel density
Ear grain rows arrangement.
GRArr
Grain row arrangement
grain row arrangement
Maize stripe virus (MSTV) incidence.
MSTVInc
Maize stripe virus incidence
Maize stripe virus incidence
Sucrose content in the leaf
Sucrose content
LSucrose
Leaf sucrose content
Color of the cob glumes.
Cob glumes color
color
CobGlCol
Corn stunt spiroplasma severity.
Corn stunt spiroplasma severity
Corn Spiroplasma stunt severity
CSSSev
Count the number plants that are damaged by busseola (african stem borer) per plot.
BusseolaInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that have more than one ear growing from the same node.
MCob - Counting
CSmutSev - Estimation
Observe common smut severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
Observe maize busy stunt severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
CSCMSev - Estimation
Tropical rust severity
Tropical rust (Physopella zeae) severity.
TRustSev
Tropical rust severity
plant/plot
Ear width.
Ear width
EWid
width
SCond
Leaf stomatal conductance
Stomatal conductance
Stomatal conductance
MSVSev - Estimation
Observe the plants that are affected by maize streak virus per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
GProt
Grain protein content
Protein content
Whole-grain protein content.
EndoLys - Measurement
Standard method for endosperm lysin content.
g/100grain
Starch content
Grain starch content
GStarch
Whole-grain starch content.
Observe the variation of the intensity of a kernel/grain surface and score grain texture based on properties such as smoothness, coarseness and regularity of the grain.
GTex - Estimation
Observe curvularia leaf spot severity on plants per plot based on the degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
CLSSev - Estimation
ERInc - Counting
Count the total number of ears that damaged or/and rotten per plot.
Divide the total number of ears with bad husk cover by the total number of ears harvested.
BHskCovInc - Computation
Tassel exertion
TslExer
Tassel exertion.
exertion
1-2 absent-present scale
FmonSRInc - Computation
Divide the total number of FmonSR damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
GVitA
ProvitaminA content
Whole-grain pro-vitaminA content.
Grain provitaminA content
Turcicum leaf blight severity
Turcicum leaf blight severity
EturcSev
Turcicum leaf blight (Exserohilum turcicum = Helminthosporium turcicum) severity.
Bacterial leaf stripe (Pseudomonas rubrilinians) severity.
BCLSSev
Bacterial leaf stripe severity
Bacterial leaf stripe severity
1-5 Grain texture scale
GThk - Measurement
Measure the thickness of the same 10 grains used for taking grain length measurement.
Army worm damage
Army worm damage
AWormDmg
Army worm (syn. Spodoptera exempta) damage.
Banded leaf and sheath blight severity
Banded leaf and sheath blight severity
Banded leaf and sheath blight (Rhizoctonia solani f. sp. sasakii) severity.
BLSBSev
Count the number of plants that are affected by bacterial stalk rot per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
BactSRInc - Counting
Busseola damage incidence
Busseola incidence
BusseolaInc
Busseola larvae incidence.
MRCVInc - Computation
Divide the total number of MRCV damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
Aflatox - Measurement
Standard method for aflatoxin content.
Standard method for silk growth rate.
SilkGrwR - Computation
Stewart wilt (Erwinia stewartii) incidence.
Stewarts wilt incidence
Stewarts wilt incidence
SteWiltInc
Plants harvested
Number of plants harvested per unit area.
PHvst
havested number
length
ELLng
Ear leaf length
Ear leaf (blade) length.
Lysine content
Lysine content in grain endosperm.
Endosperm Lysine content
EndoLys
Average of 10 consecutive grains from one row in the middle of the uppermost ear, measured with calliper.
GLng - Measurement
Divide the total number of SRot damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
SRInc - Computation
Observe fusarium moniliforme stalk rot severity on plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
FmonSRSev - Estimation
Divide the total number of EWDMG damaged ears by the total number of plants harvested.
EWormInc - Computation
1-3 Ear shape scale
Count the number of plants that are affected by philippine downy mildew per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
PDMInc - Counting
ppb
Downy mildew severity
DMSev
Downy mildews (several species of the genera Peronosclerospora, Sclerospora, and Sclerophthora) severity.
Downy mildew severity
Divide the total number of BSDM damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
BSDMInc - Computation
¡C
%
Proline content in the root.
Proline content
Root proline content
RProl
Calculate shelled grain yield per unit area calculated in fresh (field) weight basis.
FW GY - Computation
Record shelled cob field weight.
ShellCobW - Measurement (duplicate)
Silking time.
Silk
Silking time
silking time
LateWiltInc - Computation
Divide the total number of LateWilt damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
TSCSev - Estimation
Observe tarspot complex severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) incidence.
Maize dwarf mosaic virus incidence
DMVInc
Maize dwarf mosaic virus incidence
Grain type
GTyp
Type of grain.
type
SCMVInc - Computation
Divide the total number of SCMV damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
MCob - Computation
Divide the total number of Chupon plants by the total number of plants harvested.
ShellCobW
Shelled cob weight
Weight of shelled cob.
weight or yield
Maize weevil number
The number of maize weevils (Sitophilus zeamais) hatching and emerging from an infested grain sample within a given period. Large values indicate susceptibility to grain weevils, small values indicate partial resistance to grain weevils.
WeevN
Maize weevil number in Grain
Observe dead leaf area per plant/plot and rate.
Sen - Estimation
Crazy top (Sclerophthora macrospora) incidence.
Crazy top downy mildew incidence
Crazy top downy mildew incidence
CTMInc
Divide the total number of HSmut damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
HSmutInc - Computation
AstriInc
Black bundle incidence
Black bundle incidence
Black bundle (Acremonium strictum) incidence.
Grain length
length
GLng
Grain length.
1-3 density scale
1-5 damage scoring scale
Curvularia leaf spot (Curvularia spp.) severity.
Curvularia leaf spot severity
Curvularia leaf spot severity
CLSSev
cm
FungDis
Fungal disease presence
The trait is scored for the response to the diseases caused by several fungi.
Fungal disease presence
Brown spot severity
BwSpotSev
Brown spot severity
Brown spot (Physoderma maydis) severity.
MSTVInc - Computation
Divide the total number of MSTV damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
Observe GLS severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
GLSSev - Estimation
NDVI
Normalized difference vegetation index
normalized difference vegetation index
Canopy normalized difference vegetation index.
DMVSev
Maize dwarf mosaic virus severity
Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) severity.
Maize dwarf mosaic virus incidence
DMVSev - Estimation
Observe maize dwarf mosaic virus severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
EShape - Estimation
Standard method for ear shape
Ear number.
Ear number
number
EN
ELng
Ear length
length
Ear length.
Fusarium stalk rot incidence
Fusarium stalk rot incidence
Fusarium stalk rot incidence.
FusSRInc
FW GY - Measurement
Shell the grains (kernels) from the ears harvested per plot and record fresh (field) weight.
TslBN - Counting
Standard method for tassel branches number.
t/ha
Maize streak virus severity
MSVSev
Maize streak virus severity (MSV) severity.
Maize streak virus severity
Maydis leaf blight severity
Maydis leaf blight (Bipolaris maydis = Helminthosporium maydis) severity.
Maydis leaf blight severity
BmaySev
Whole-grain zinc content.
GZinc
Zinc content
Grain zinc content
1-3 Plant uniformity scale
Standard method for tassel opening
TslOpen - Estimation
Measure on the same 10 grains used for taking grain length measurement.
GWid - Measurement
EAsp
aspect
Ear aspect
Observation of harvested ears based on some morphological and agronomical characters such as ear size, total numbers of ear harvested per plot, ear damaged caused by insects or/and diseases.
Anthocyanin coloration
Anther Anthocyanin coloration
Anthocyanin coloration of anthers.
AntCol
Optimum number of measurements: i) Vegetative stage: Weekly measurements from 2 to 6 weeks after planting; ii) Flowering: only for inbred lines.
NDVI - Measurement
Late wilt incidence
Late wilt incidence
LateWiltInc
Late wilt (Cephalosporium maydis) incidence.
stand
PStand
Number of plants per unit area.
Plant stand
LABA
Leaf abscisic acid content
Abscisic acid content in the leaf.
Abscisic acid content
EWormDmg
Earworm damage
Earworm damage
Ear worm (Heliothis) damage.
branch
Count the number of plants that are affected by sugarcane mosaic virus per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
SCMVInc - Counting
Count the seedling that are affected by seedling diseases per plot.
SdlngDisInc - Counting
GGlucose
Glucose content in the grain.
Glucose content
Grain glucose content
GUpSSh
Grain upper surface shape
upper surface shape
Shape of the upper surface of grain.
day
Count the number of plants that are affected by maize dwarf mosaic virus per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
DMVInc - Counting
1-9 disease scoring scale
1-3 Tassel density scale
ERInc
Ear rot incidence.
Ear rot incidence
Ear rot incidence
Plant height to ligule of the flag leaf
PHFL
height to ligule of the flag leaf
Plant height from the base to the ligule of the flag leaf.
Photochemical radiation index. A canopy reflectance index indicating photosynthetic radiation use efficiency.
photochemical radiation index
PRI
Photochemical radiation index
ELng - Measurement
Measure, when applicable, ear length of at least 20 representative plants per accession, record the data in the fieldbook.
LRollSev
Severity of leaf rolling, usually scored under drought stress.
rolling severity
Leaf rolling severity
Rank number
ABA - Measurement
Standard method for abscisic acid content.
GW Adjusted - Computation
Compute grain weigh adjuted to 12.5% moisture.
OP - Measurement
Standard method for osmotic potential.
Color of the grain.
GCol
Grain color
color
Observe tropical severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
TRustSev - Estimation
Standard method for ear leaf length.
ELLng - Measurement
DMJInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by DMJ per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
Anthracnose leaf blight incidence
Anthracnose leaf blight incidence
ALBInc
Anthracnose (Colletotrichum graminicola) incidence.
Plant damage caused by Diatraea species.
Diatraea damage
DiatraeaDmg
Diatraea damage
Measure, when applicable, ear diameter at the central part of uppermost ears of at least 20 representative plants per accession.
EDia - Measurement
Harvest ears per plot (eliminate first and last plants to avoid border effects) and score ear aspect combining several ear-associated traits. Note: Combination of traits usually differs from one breeder to another depending on type of study.
EAsp - Estimation
Fusarium moniliforme ear rot severity
FmonERSev
Fusarium moniliforme ear rot severity.
Fusarium moniliforme ear rot severity
Observe fusarium graminearum ear rot severity on ears per plot based on degree of infection.
FgramERSev - Estimation
0-1 absent-present scale
Count the number of tillers per plant (average of more than 20 representative) plants.
Tillering - Counting
TslBW - Measurement
Standard method for tassel branches dry weight.
Divide the total number of CharRot damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
CharRInc - Computation
Shell - Computation
Use formula to calculate ear sheeling ratio.
EWormInc
Earworm incidence
Earworm incidence
Ear worm (Heliothis) incidence.
Number of grain rows in the central part of the uppermost ear.
GRN
Grain row number
grain row number
PsacchInc
Sugarcane downy mildew incidence
Sugarcane downy mildew (Peronosclerospora sacchari) incidence.
Sugarcane downy mildew incidence
anthesis silking interval
Anthesis silking interval
Anthesis silking interval.
ASI
0-10 Senescence scale
Count and weigh grains randomly selected from the total grains.
GW FW - Measurement
Observe the ears hask cover and rate it.
HskCov - Estimation
Grain test weight of mature kernels.
Grain test weight
test weight
GTW
ELSen
Ear leaf senescence time
ear leaf senescence time
Ear leaf senescence time.
Grain abscisic acid content
Abscisic acid content
GABA
Abscisic acid content in the grain.
BmaySev - Estimation
Observe maydis leaf blight severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
Record the date when excised kernels are longitudinally cut to expose a black internal abscission layer at the base of the kernel that signals the kernel has ceased to absorb nutrients or moisture from the mother plants.
Maturity date - Estimation
Standard method for sucrose content.
Sucrose - Measurement
Charcoal rot incidence
Charcoal rot or (Macrophomina phaseolina) incidence.
Charcoal rot incidence
CharRInc
Sorghum downy mildew incidence
Sorghum downy mildew (Peronosclerospora sorghi) incidence.
DMSInc
Sorghum downy mildew incidence
Standard germination
Standard germination.
StdGerm
Standard germination
Divide the total number of StenSR damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
StenSRInc - Computation
Corn stunt complex (corn stunt spiroplasma, maize bushy stunt phytoplasma [= mycoplasma], maize rayado fino virus) incidence.
Corn stunt incidence
CSCInc
Corn stunt incidence
GZinc - Measurement
Standard method for whole-grain zinc content.
FusSRInc - Computation
Divide the total number of FusSR damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
height to insertion of first tassel branch
Plant height to insertion of first tassel branch
PHTslB
Plant height from the base to the insertion of the first tassel branch.
Insertion angle of the leaves.
Leaf erectness
erectness
LErect
Observe the ears damage caused by ear rot and/or insects per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
EDmg - Estimation
EarW Field weight - Measurement
Harvest all ears in a plot (or row), put them in the nylon bag and dry at 60-70¡C for 1-2 days, then measure and record the weight of dried ears.
BusseolaDmg
Plant damage caused by Busseola larvae.
Busseola damage
Busseola damage
Pythium stalk rot (Pythium spp.) incidence.
PytSRInc
Pythium stalk rot incidence
Pythium stalk rot incidence
DiatraeaDmg - Estimation
Observe the plant damage caused by Diatraea plot.
growth rate
Ear growth rate
Growth rate of the ear(s) on a plant. It may include the sum of the apical and sub-apical ear growth from prolific plants.
EGrwR
LWid - Measurement
Take same leaf measured for leaf length and measure mid-way along its length.
Root capacitance
RootCapac
capacitance
Estimation of root mass at the end of the stress using an electrical capacitance meter.
ng/g
g/plant/day
Aflatox
Aflatoxin content
Aflatoxin content
Grain Aflatoxins content produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus.
kg/plot
yyyymmdd
Leaf color
LCol
color
Color of the leaf.
Standard method for proline content.
Proline - Measurement
GWLostWeev
Loss of weight of the grain samples caused by weevil (Sitophilus zeamais) feeding during a given period of incubation.
Grain weight loss by maize weevil
weight loss by maize weevil
EturcSev - Estimation
Observe turcicum leaf blight severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
FusERSev - Estimation
Observe fusarium ear rot severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
1-5 Anthocyanin coloration scale
NIRS method for oil content
NIRS GOil - Measurement
Anthocyanin coloration
CobGlCol
Anthocyanin coloration of cob glumes.
Cob glumes Anthocyanin coloration
Glucose - Measurement
Standard method for glucose content.
TslTyp - Estimation
Standard method for tassel type.
NIRS LAsh - Measurement
NIRS method for leaves ash content
Number of days from sowing to when 50% of the plants silk. Also, it can be calculated using sowing and silking date.
DTS - Computation
WeevInc - Estimation
Score maize weevil damage on the plants per plot.
grain/plant
TslDen
Tassel density
density
Density of spikelets.
WeevN - Counting
Standard method for maize weevil number in a sample. Weevils were counted only once (at the end of a 45-d incubation period)
GTrp - Measurement
Standard method for whole-grain tryptophan content.
Maize rayado fino virus incidence
MRFVInc
Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV) incidence.
Maize rayado fino virus incidence
SLodgInc - Computation
Divide the total numbers of plants with lodged stems by number of plants harvested.
Seedling disease incidence.
Seedling disease incidence
Seedling disease incidence
SdlngDisInc
ug/g
umol/g
EGrwR - Computation
Standard method for ear growth rate.
EHvst - Counting
Count the total number of ears harvested per plot/entry, excluding secondary ears that are extremely small.
AflavERSev - Estimation
Observe aspergillus flavus ear rot severity on the harvested ears per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
Observe head smut severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
HSmutSev - Estimation
PH
Plant height from the base to the top part (in reproductive stages to the top of the tassel).
Plant height
height
Protein content in grain endosperm.
Protein content
Endosperm protein content
EndoProt
DMJInc - Computation
Divide the total number of DMJ damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
Ear weight
weight
Weight of mature upper ear, including cob and kernels, and at a defined moisture content, although often this is not provided.
EW
1-5 Tassel exertion scale
Java downy mildew (Peronosclerospora maydis) incidence.
DMJInc
Java downy mildew incidence
Java downy mildew incidence
¡C day
Standard method for plant vigor
PVig - Estimation
ear/plot
EndoHard - Estimation
Determine quality of endosperm such as hardness in the lab and use 1-5 to scale to score it.
Harvest all ears in a plot (or row), put them in the nylon bag and record weight. If at all possible, delay harvest of maize until its moisture content is low (15-25%).
EarW Dry weight - Measurement
number
TslBN
Tassel branch number
Number of branches on tassel.
Count the number of plants that are affected by sorghum downy mildew per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
DMSInc - Counting
Standard method for tassel exertion
TslExer - Estimation
CSucrose
Sucrose content in the cob
Sucrose content
Cob sucrose content
CobGlAnCol - Estimation
Standard method for cob tassel Anthocyanin coloration. The anthocyanin Anthocyanin colorationation should be observed on the middle third of the uppermost cob, after the removal of some of the grains.
PRI - Measurement
Standard method for photochemical radiation index.
Calculated as relative grain yield agaisnst the best check in percentage.
Relative to check - Computation
The ratio of grain to total ear weight.
Shell
Shelling ratio
Ear shelling ratio
A measure of the potential of water to move between regions of differing concentrations across a water-permeable membrane.
osmotic potential
OP
Osmotic potential
Large grain borer damage
Large grain borer damage
Large grain borer (Prostephanus truncatus) damage.
LGBDmg
NIRS GProt- Measurement
NIRS method for whole-grain protein content.
Silking date - Estimation
Observe plants carefully and record date when 50% of plants within a plot area have silks visible (female flowering date). This is determined on a daily basis by counting the number of plants with at least one silk extruded divided by the total number of plants in the plot.
1-5 WeevDmgInc scale
bad husk cover incidence
Ears bad husk cover incidence.
Ear bad husk cover incidence
BHskCovInc
Count the number of plants that are affected by anthracnose leaf blight per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
ALBInc - Counting
Measure sample weight of grains per plot after harvest, record dry weight of the same samples and calculate grain moisture content for each sample using formula: 100*(Wt of sample - Dry Weight)/Wt of sample.
GMoi - Computation
BCLSSev - Estimation
Observe bacterial leaf stripe severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
WI
Water index
A ratio between the reflectance at a water band wavelength to a nearby reference wavelength where there is no absorption due to water content variability.
water index
Count the number of plants that are affected by stalk rot per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
SRInc - Counting
PLSSev - Estimation
Observe phaeosphaeria leaf spot severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
Score the plants per plot combining several agronomical and morphological characters of plants such plant height, ear height, stem/root loading. Note: Combination of traits usually differ from one breeder to another depending on type of study.
PAsp - Estimation
ppm
GStarch - Measurement
Standard method for whole-grain starch content.
1-3 size scale
Observe shape of uppermost ear.
UpESh - Estimation
weight
Ear leaf weight
ELW
Weight of ear leaf (blade).
Standard method for glumes tassel Anthocyanin coloration. The measurement should exclude the bases of the glumes.
TslGlAnCol - Estimation
1-5 disease scoring scale
Observe the plants per plot with the leaves rolled.
LRollSev - Estimation
PUnif - Estimation
Standard method for plant uniformity
FusSRInc - Counting
Count the plants that are affected by fusarium stalk rot per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
Count total number of plants per plot.
PStand - Counting
RootCapac - Measurement
Standard method for root capitance.
GOil - Measurement
Standard method for oil content
GVitA - Measurement
Standard method for whole-grain pro-vitaminA content.
DMSSev - Estimation
Observe sorghum downy mildew severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
Growing degree days to maturity - Computation
Calculated as growing-degree units or growing degree days between sowing and maturity.
branching type
Branching type of tassel.
TslTyp
Tassel branching type
Observe the shape of the upper surface of grain, when applicable, on at least 20 representative plants per accession, after harvest.
GUpSSh - Estimation
SRInc
Stalk rot incidence
Stalk rot incidence
Stalk rot (multiple pathogens or an unidentified pathogen) incidence.
YLChl - Measurement
Standard method for young leaf chlorophyll content.
Aleurone color
AleuCol
Color of the aleurone.
color
1-5 Vigor scale
1-3 Cob color scale
Divide the total number of CSN damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
CSmutInc - Computation
Aphid damage
AphDmg
Aphids (Rhopalosiphum maidis) damage.
Aphid damage
Proline content
Leaf proline content
Proline content in the leaf.
LProline
LErect - Estimation
Standard method for leaf erectness
Standard method for water index.
WI - Measurement
SilkCol
Silk Anthocyanin coloration
Anthocyanin coloration of stigmas.
Anthocyanin coloration
Divide the total number of BactSR damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
BactSRInc - Computation
Divide the total number of SteWilt damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
SteWiltInc - Computation
GOil
Grain oil content
Whole-grain oil content.
Oil content
Measure the leaf which subtends the uppermost ear from ligule to apex.
LLng - Measurement
1-4 Ear shape scale
Observe banded leaf and sheath blight severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
BLSBSev - Estimation
Number of days from sowing to when 50% of the plants have a dry ear leaf. Count the number of days from sowing to when 50% of the plants have a dry ear leaf. Also, it can be calculated using sowing and ear leaf senescence date.
Days to ear leaf senescence date - Computation
PpolySev - Estimation
Observe polysora rust severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
Striga plant number
Plant number
StrigaPN
Number of Striga hermonthica plants.
FgramSRInc
Fusarium graminearum stalk rot incidence
Fusarium graminearum stalk rot incidence
Fusarium graminearum stalk rot incidence.
Root glucose content
Glucose content
RGlucose
Glucose content in the root.
Bacterial stalk rot incidence
Bacterial stalk rot (Erwinia chrysanthemi) incidence.
BactSRInc
Bacterial stalk rot incidence
1-5 Endosperm hardness scale
Tassel opening
Tassel angle.
opening
TslOpen
Aspergillus ear rot severity.
AspERSev
Aspergillus ear rot severity
Aspergillus ear rot severity
Count the number of plants that are affected by pythium stalk rot per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
PytSRInc - Counting
Chl - Measurement
Measured with a portable chlorophyll meter (e.g. SPAD). Take the average measure from leaves of six alternating plants and use always leaves of similar insertion level.
width
LWid
Leaf width
Leaf width.
MRFVInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by maize bushy stunt per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
Grain proline content
Proline content
Proline content in the grain.
GProline
Gray leaf spot severity
Gray leaf spot severity
Gray leaf spot (Cercospora zeae-maydis) severity.
GLSSev
Calculate shelled grain yield per unit area adjusted to 12.5% grain moisture.
Adjusted GY - Computation
DMSInc - Computation
Divide the total number of DMS damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
StBorDmg - Estimation
Observe the plant damage caused by stem borer per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
CSCInc - Counting
Count the total number of plants that are affected by corn stunt complex per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
g
Tassel branch weight
weight
Weight of tassel branches.
TslBW
1-5 Leaf color scale
NIRS method for whole-grain ash content
NIRS GAsh - Measurement
Divide the total number of PDM damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
PDMInc - Computation
EWormDmg - Measurement
Standard method for earworm damage measured in cm of feeding. 0 - no ear damage, 1 - 1 cm, + 1 for each additional cm of feeding
Maize bushy stunt (caused by mycoplasma like organism, MLO) severity.
Maize bushy stunt severity
Maize bushy stunt severity
CSCMSev
Observe maize lethal necrosis severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
MLNSev - Estimation
ALBInc - Computation
Divide the total number of ALB damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
Standard method for tassel Anthocyanin coloration.
TslAnCol - Estimation
Days to maturity - Computation
Number of days required from seeding to grain ripening. Also, it can be calculated using sowing and maturity date.
TslCol
Anthocyanin coloration
Tassel Anthocyanin coloration
Anthocyanin coloration of tassel.
1-5 Leaf rolling severity scale
AstriInc - Computation
Divide the total number of ASTRI damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
PsacchInc - Computation
Divide the total number of Psacch damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
osmotic adjustment
OA
Osmotic adjustment
Osmotic adjustment as ability of the plant to adjust the osmotic potential under stress conditions.
It is calculated as the numerical position of the progeny when yields are arrenged from highest to lowest.
GYRank - Computation
g/200grain
EWormInc - Counting
Count the number of ear damage caused by earworm per plot.
Philippine downy mildew incidence
Philippine downy mildew incidence
Philippine downy mildew (Peronosclerospora philippinensis) incidence.
PDMInc
1-5 rating scale
Uppermost ear shape
UpESh
Shape of uppermost ear whether cylindrical or cylindrical-conical or conical or round.
shape
Penicillium ear rot severity
PERSev
Penicillium ear rot severity.
Penicillium ear rot severity
Head smut severity
HSmutSev
Head smut severity
Head smut (Sphacelotheca reiliana) severity.
TslSiz
Tassel size.
Tassel size
size
GRArr - Estimation
Observe grain row arrangement in the harvested ears and rate 1-4 categorical scale.
1-5 Tassel blasting severity scale
MRDVInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by maize rough dwarf virus per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
Ash content
GAsh
Grain ash content
Whole-grain ash content.
Standard method for tassel anthers Anthocyanin coloration. The observation should be made in the middle third of the main branch on fresh anthers.
AntAnCol - Estimation
CCI
Standard method for osmotic adjustment.
OA - Measurement
Aspergillus flavus ear rot severity.
Aspergillus flavus ear rot severity
Aspergillus flavus ear rot severity
AflavERSev
Observe fusarium graminearum ear rot severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection.
CSSSev - Estimation
Observe penicillium ear rot severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
PERSev - Estimation
Whole-grain Nitrogen content.
Grain Nitrogen content
Nitrogen content
GNC
color
PericCol
Pericarp color
Color of the pericarp.
BSDMInc
Brown stripe downy mildew (Sclerophthora rayssiae var. zeae) incidence.
Brown stripe downy mildew incidence
Brown stripe downy mildew incidence
Observe common rust severity on plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
CRustSev - Estimation
1-9 Anthocyanin coloration scale
harvested number
EHvst
Number of ears harvested.
Ear harvested number
Use ear height and plant height data of the same plants per plot and calculate the ratio. Small values indicate low ear position; large values indicate high ear position.
EPo - Computation
Stem borer damage
StBorDmg
Stem borer damage includes different stem borers such as Chilo partellus, Sesamia spp. and Spodoptera.
Stem borer damage
AspERSev - Estimation
Observe aspergillus ear rot severity on the harvested ears per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
Young leaf chlorophyll content
YLChl
Chlorophyll content
Chlorophyll content in the young leaf.
Count the number of ears.
EN - Counting
index
length
Silk length
SilkLng
Silk length.
Ash content in maize leaves.
Leaf ash content
LAsh
Ash content
StrigaDmg - Estimation
Observe the maize plant damage caused by striga per plot.
FusERSev
Fusarium ear rot severity
Fusarium ear rot severity
Fusarium ear rot severity.
Scored for severity of lodging.
LodgInc - Estimation
ELChl
Ear leaf chlorophyll content
Chlorophyll content
Chlorophyll content in the ear leaf.
EndoTrp
Endosperm Tryptophan content
Tryptophan content
Tryptophan content in grain endosperm.
Grain Lysine content
GLys
Lysine content
Whole-grain Lysine content.
Ear height
height to insertion of uppermost ear
Plant height from base to the insertion of the top (uppermost) ear.
EH
PericCol - Estimation
Observe the pericarp color, when applicable, on at least 20 representative plants per accession.
color
Endosperm color
EndoCol
Color of the endosperm.
TslBlastSev
blasting severity
Observation of blasting severity of the tassel (necrosis due to heat stress) at the time of flowering. It occurs under extreme temperatures and drought.
Tassel blasting severity
CT
canopy temperature
Canopy temperature.
Canopy temperature
1-5 Pericarp color scale
Observe the plant damage caused by chilo per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
ChiloDmg - Estimation
Uniformity of plants.
Plant uniformity
PUnif
uniformity
tiller/plant
Ear shape
shape
Ear shape
EShape
BHskCovInc - Estimation
Observation of ears with bad husk cover.
Fusarium moniliforme stalk rot incidence
Fusarium moniliforme stalk rot incidence
FmonSRInc
Fusarium moniliforme stalk rot incidence.
CTMInc - Computation
Divide the total number of CTM damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
Count the number of plants that are affected by charcoal rot per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
CharRInc - Counting
CT - Measurement
Standard method for canopy temperature.
CobGlCol - Estimation
Standard method for cob tassel color. The anthocyanin coloration should be observed on the middle third of the uppermost cob, after the removal of some of the grains.
Sugarcane mosaic virus incidence
Sugarcane mosaic virus incidence
SCMVInc
Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) incidence.
StenSRInc
Stenocarpella stalk rot incidence
Stenocarpella stalk rot incidence
Stenocarpella (=Diplodia) stalk rot incidence.
1-6 Endosperm color scale
AphDmg - Estimation
Observe the plant damage caused by aphids per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
Anthocyanin coloration
TslGlBCol
Anthocyanin coloration at base of tassel glumes.
Tassel glumes base Anthocyanin coloration
Calculate shelled grain yield per unit area calculated in dry weight basis.
DW GY - Computation
Standard method for sheath pubescence content.
ShtPub - Estimation
Maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais) incidence on grain.
Maize weevil incidence
Maize weevil incidence
WeevInc
Common rust severity
Severity of common rust ( Puccinia sorghi).
CRustSev
Common rust severity
yield
GY
Grain yield per unit area, either field weight basis, dry weight basis or adjusted to 12.5% grain moisture.
Grain yield
Sucrose content
Root sucrose content
RSucrose
Sucrose content in the root.
Divide the total number of plants that are root lodged due to weak soil or poorly developed anchorage roots by the total number of plants that are harvested.
RLodgInc - Computation
ear/plant
1-3 Ear position scale
Common smut incidence
Common smut incidence
CSmutInc
Common smut (Ustilago maydis, syn. U. zeae)incidence.
1-3 Tassel branching type scale
g/plot
Meaure ear width.
EWid - Measurement
Sucrose content in the grain
GSucrose
Sucrose content
Grain sucrose content
Standard method for leaf color.
LCol - Estimation
AleuCol - Estimation
Observe the aleurone color, when applicable, on at least 20 representative plants per accession.
Standard method for grain number.
GN - Computation
ng/µg
variable_of
Calculate shelled grain yield per unit area calculated in dry weight basis.
Dry weight basis GY - Computation
1-4 Grain row arrangement scale
Record date when 50% of the plants have a dry ear leaf.
Ear leaf senescence date - Computation
SmaySev - Estimation
Observe stenocarpella ear rot severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
Calculate shelled grain yield per unit area calculated in fresh (field) weight basis.
FW GY - Computation
Fusarium moniliforme stalk rot severity.
Fusarium moniliforme stalk rot severity
Fusarium moniliforme stalk rot severity
FmonSRSev
Score the tassels based on size using 1-3 categorical scale.
TslSiz - Estimation
RustSev
Rust severity
Rust severity
Multiple rust pathogens severity.
CTMInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by CTM per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
Grain width.
GWid
width
Grain width
ug/mg
Maize streak virus incidence
MSVInc
Maize streak virus incidence
Maize streak virus incidence (MSV) incidence.
GW DW - Measurement
Count and weigh grains randomly selected from the total grains.
Compute number of ears using the formula.
EN - Computation
CSmutInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by the common smut per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
StenSRInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by stenocarpella stalk rot per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
cm/day
DiabroticaDmg
Diabrotica damage
Plant damage caused by Diabrotica species.
Diabrotica damage
PHFL - Measurement
Recommended to take multiple plants and measure the height between the base of a plant to the ligule of the flag leaf, enter the data individually in the FieldBook and calculate the average.
MSVInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by maize streak virus per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
Standard method for standard germination
StdGerm - Estimation
EPo - Estimation
Determine ear position using 1-3 scale.
GCol - Estimation
Count total number of grain rows in the ear.
1-9 Grain color scale
Polysora rust severity
PpolySev
Polysora rust (in lowlands Puccinia polysora) severity.
Polysora rust severity
Head smut incidence
HSmutInc
Head smut incidence
Head smut (Sphacelotheca reiliana) incidence.
Thickness of the grain.
GThk
thickness
Grain thickness
g/1000grain
Standard method for ear leaf weight.
ELW - Measurement
TslBlastSev - Estimation
Standard method for tassel blasting.
GNC - Measurement
Standard method for whole-grain Nitrogen content
Observe brown spot severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
BwSpotSev - Estimation
Standard method for grain test weight.
GTW - Computation
uF
NIRS method for whole-grain tryptophan content.
NIRS GTrp- Measurement
GIron - Measurement
Standard method for whole-grain iron content.
GN
Grain number.
Grain number
number
lb/plot
Divide the total number of PytSR damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
PytSRInc - Computation
Shell the grains (kernels) from the ears harvested per plot and put grains in a paper bag and dry at 60-70¡C for 1-2 days, then measure and record the weight of dried grain.
DW GY - Measurement
Standard method for whole-grain protein content. % Protein = % of nitrogen x 6.25
GProt - Computation
Divide the total number of MSV damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
MSVInc - Computation
weevil
Count number of days from planting date to anthesis and silking to determine days to anthesis (DTA) and days to silking (DTS), respectively and determine anthesis silking interval (ASI) by calculating: ASI = DTS-DTA.
ASI - Computation
Recommended to take multiple plants and measure the height from the base of a plant to the insertion of the first tassel branch, enter the data individually in the FieldBook and calculate the average.
PHTslB - Measurement
Count the number of plants that are affected by stewart wilt per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
SteWiltInc - Counting
Standard method for glumes base tassel Anthocyanin coloration.
TslGlBAnCol - Estimation
Stenocarpella ear rot severity
SmaySev
Stenocarpella (=Diplodia) ear rot severity.
Stenocarpella ear rot severity
Grain texture
GTex
texture
Grain texture as a measure of the variation on the intensity of a surface, quantifying properties such as smoothness, coarseness and regularity of the grain.
Senescence
Leaf senescence.
Sen
senescence
1-11 Grain type scale
Count the plants that are affected by fusarium graminearum stalk rot per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
FgramSRInc - Counting
mm
SLodgInc - Counting
Count the number of plants with the stem lodged. The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
EndoProt - Measurement
Standard method for endosperm protein content.
Ear damage caused by ear rot and/or insects, etc.
Ear damage
Ear damage
EDmg
1-5 Tassel opening scale
Measure moisture of a grain sample using NIRS moisture analyzer.
NIRS Moi - Measurement
Calculated as growing-degree units or growing degree days between sowing and 50% anthesis.
Growing degree days to anthesis - Computation
Seed weight loss was determined using the count and weight method of Gwinner et al (1996). Weight loss (%) = (Wu x Nd) - (Wd x Nu) x 100 / Wu x (Nd + Nu) where Wu=weight of the undamaged seed, Nu = number of undamaged seed, Wd = Weight of damaged seed, and Nd=Number of damaged seed.
GWLostWeev - Measurement
Anthocyanin coloration of tassel glumes excluding the bases of the glumes.
TslGlCol
Tassel glumes Anthocyanin coloration
Anthocyanin coloration
AWormDmg - Estimation
Observe the plant damage caused by army worms per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
Recommended to take 6 alternating plants per plot and measure the height between the base of a plant to the insertion of the top (uppermost) ear of the same plant, enter the data individually in the FieldBook and calculate the average.
EH - Measurement
Grain weight
Grain weight of mature kernels.
GW
weight
Ear position
Ear position as a ratio of ear height to plant height.
EPo
position
GLys - Measurement
Standard method for whole-grain lysin content.
lodging incidence
Lodging incidence
Observation of lodging severity.
LodgInc
Whole-grain Tryptophan content.
Tryptophan content
GTrp
Grain Tryptophan content
FungDis - Estimation
Observe the plants that are damaged by any fungal diseases.
1-6 Grain upper surface shape scale
SilkLng - Measurement
Standard method for silk length.
MSTVInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by maize stripe virus per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
Maize lethal necrosis (MLN) severity.
Maize lethal necrosis severity
MLNSev
Maize lethal necrosis severity
MCob
Multiple cob incidence
multiple cob incidence
Incidence of multiple cobs, as plants that have multiple ears arising from a single node.
root lodging incidence
Root lodging incidence
RLodgInc
Root lodging incidence. The plants that show root lodging, i.e. those stems that are inclining by more than 45¡.
Striga damage
Striga damage
StrigaDmg
Damage of Striga hermonthica plants on maize plants.
Text
BSDMInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by brown stripe downy mildew per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
Sheath pubescence
ShtPub
Presence and intensity of hairs on the surface of the leaf sheath.
pubescence
Days to anthesis - Computation
Number of days from sowing to when 50% of the plants shed pollen. Observe a known number of plants carefully (guideline: N = 20 for inbred lines or hybrids; N = 35 for open pollinated varieties) at the same time each day until 50% of the plants in the plot have produced at least one visible anther and score the number of days from sowing. Also, it can be calculated using sowing and anthesis date.
StemCol
color
Stem color
Color of the stem.
growth rate
Silk growth rate
Growth rate of silk.
SilkGrwR
PAsp
aspect
Plant aspect
Qualitative observation of plant ideotype. In another word, it rates characteristics such as plant and ear height, uniformity of plants, disease and insect damage, and lodging.
Divide the total number of SeedlingDis affected plants by the total number of plants harvested.
SdlngDisInc - Computation
HSmutInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by head smut per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
Mat
maturity time
Maturity time.
Maturity time
Stem lodging incidence
SLodgInc
Stem lodging incidence. The plants that show stem lodging, i.e. those stems that are broken below the ear.
stem lodging incidence
Observe fusarium moniliforme ear rot severity on plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
FmonERSev - Estimation
1-5 Standard germination scale
Standard method for leaves ash content
LAsh- Measurement
kg/ha
Tar spot complex severity
Tar spot complex (Phyllachora maydis, Monographella maydis) severity.
TSCSev
Tar spot complex severity
Observe color of grains.
GCol - Estimation
PH - Measurement
Recommended to take multiple plants and measure the height from the base of a plant to the top of the tassel, enter the data individually in the FieldBook and calculate the average.
AstriInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by black bundle per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
Anthesis time.
Ant
Anthesis time
anthesis time
FmonSRInc - Counting
Count the plants that are affected by fusarium moniliforme stalk rot per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
Mpa
Plant vigor.
vigor
PVig
Plant vigor
Seedling vigor
vigor
SdlngVig
Seedling vigor.
Endosperm hardness.
hardness
Endosperm hardness
EndoHard
Chilo (Chilo partellus) damage.
Chilo damage
ChiloDmg
Chilo damage
RABA
Abscisic acid content
Root abscisic acid content
Abscisic acid content in the root.
Count the number of plants that are affected by sugarcane downy mildew per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
PsacchInc - Counting
StemCol - Estimation
Observe the stem color between the two topmost ears.
Count the number of plants that show root lodging and record data in filedbook. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
RLodgInc - Counting
GIron
Whole-grain iron content.
Grain iron content
Iron content
row/ear
RustSev - Estimation
Observe rust severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
moisture content
GMoi
Grain moisture.
Grain moisture
Number of tillers per plant.
tillering
Tillering
Tillering
ELChl - Measurement
Standard method for ear leaf chlorophyll content.
CSCInc - Computation
Divide the total number of CSC damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
mmol /m2/s
LGBDmg - Estimation
Observe the plant damage caused by large grain borer per plot
EarW Individual - Measurement
Harvest a mature upper ear and measure its weight
StrigaPN - Counting
Count the total number of emerged striga plants per plot. It is counted three times, 8 weeks, 10 weeks and 12 weeks after planting.
EndoTrp - Measurement
Standard method for endosperm tryptophan content.
mg/g
Phaeosphaeria leaf spot severity
Phaeosphaeria leaf spot (Phaeosphaeria maydis) severity.
Phaeosphaeria leaf spot severity
PLSSev
DMSev - Estimation
Observe downy mildew severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
Anthesis date - Estimation
Date when 50% of the plants shed pollen. Observe a known number of plants carefully (guideline: N = 20 for inbred lines or hybrids; N = 35 for open pollinated varieties) at the same time each day until 50% of the plants in the plot have produced at least one visible anther and record the date.
Chlorophyll content
Leaf chlorophyll content.
Chlorophyll content
Chl
Sorghum downy mildew severity
DMSSev
Sorghum downy mildew (Peronosclerospora sorghi) severity.
Sorghum downy mildew severity
Measured with a portable porometer. Take the measures in the middle between leaf tip and leaf base, and in between leaf midrib and leaf rim. Blade sections measured must to be exposed to sunlight for at least the 30 minutes before. Measurements always performed in the same side of the leaf (usually the lower or abaxial one). One measurement per leaf, and at least 3 per plot. 1 min per measurement.
SCond - Measurement
ERInc - Computation
Divide the total number of ears that are rotten by the total number of plants that are harvested.
Shell the grains (kernels) from the ears harvested per plot and put grains in a paper bag and dry at 60-70¡C for 1-2 days, then measure and record the weight of dried grain.
DW GY - Measurement
Observe the plant damage caused by Diabrotica per plot.
DiabroticaDmg - Estimation
Divide the total number of FgramSR damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
FgramSRInc - Computation
1-5 Stem color scale
Ear shelling ratio
Ear position ratio
pg/g
Divide the total number of DMV damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
DMVInc - Computation
GTyp - Estimation
Score the grains based on grain characters such as floury, dent per plot.
LLng
length
Leaf length
Leaf length.
husk cover
Ear husk cover observed as degree of the husk covering the tip of the ear.
HskCov
Ear husk cover
MRFVInc - Computation
Divide the total number of MRFV damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
SilkAnCol - Estimation
Standard method for silk Anthocyanin coloration.
Fusarium graminearum ear rot severity.
FgramERSev
Fusarium graminearum ear rot severity
Fusarium graminearum ear rot severity
1-4 Leaf erectness scale
BHskCovInc - Counting
Count the total number of ears with bad husk cover.
Count the total number of plants harvested per plot/entry.
PHvst - Counting
Relative grain yield expressed as percentage of the mean grain yield of the trial. Values above 100% indicate above-average performance; values below 100% indicate below-average performance.
RGY - Computation
Maize rough dwarf virus incidence
MRDVInc
Maize rough dwarf virus (MRDV) incidence.
Maize rough dwarf virus incidence
EndoCol - Estimation
Observe the endosperm color, when applicable, on at least 20 representative plants per accession.
diameter
Ear diameter measured at the central part of uppermost ear.
Ear diameter
EDia
Standard method for whole-grain ash content
GAsh - Measurement
lb/bsh
1-5 Aleurone color scale
MRCVInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by mal de rio cuarto virus per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
method_of
CSmutSev
Common smut severity
Common smut severity
Common smut (Ustilago maydis, syn. U. zeae) severity.
Count the number of plants that are affected by late wilt per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
LateWiltInc - Counting
scale_of