https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
Joe Raad
Juliette Dibie
Liliana Ibanescu
Stephane Dervaux
2019-06-01
PO² - Process and Observation Ontology
2.0
Relates an entity in the ontology to the name of the variable that is used to represent it in the code that generates the BFO OWL file from the lispy specification.
Really of interest to developers only
BFO OWL specification label
Relates an entity in the ontology to the term that is used to represent it in the the CLIF specification of BFO2
Person:Alan Ruttenberg
Really of interest to developers only
BFO CLIF specification label
editor preferred term
example of usage
has curation status
PERSON:Alan Ruttenberg
PERSON:Bill Bug
PERSON:Melanie Courtot
OBI_0000281
has curation status
definition
editor note
term editor
alternative term
definition source
curator note
imported from
elucidation
has associated axiom(nl)
has associated axiom(fol)
has axiom label
computed result
has step
has input
has input measure
has observation scale
has output
has singular measure
is composed of
is component of
is computed result
is input measure of
is input of
is observation scale of
is observational result of
is output of
is series result of
is singular measure of
is step of
observation result
series result
participates in
this blood clot participates in this blood coagulation
this input material (or this output material) participates in this process
this investigator participates in this investigation
a relation between a continuant and a process, in which the continuant is somehow involved in the process
participates_in
participates in
has participant
this blood coagulation has participant this blood clot
this investigation has participant this investigator
this process has participant this input material (or this output material)
a relation between a process and a continuant, in which the continuant is somehow involved in the process
Has_participant is a primitive instance-level relation between a process, a continuant, and a time at which the continuant participates in some way in the process. The relation obtains, for example, when this particular process of oxygen exchange across this particular alveolar membrane has_participant this particular sample of hemoglobin at this particular time.
has_participant
http://www.obofoundry.org/ro/#OBO_REL:has_participant
has participant
has quantity kind
A reference to the unit of measure of a quantity (variable or constant) of interest.
unit
Gives directionality to time. If a temporal entity T1 is after another temporal entity T2, then the beginning of T1 is after the end of T2.
after
Gives directionality to time. If a temporal entity T1 is after another temporal entity T2, then the beginning of T1 is after the end of T2.
Gives directionality to time. If a temporal entity T1 is before another temporal entity T2, then the end of T1 is before the beginning of T2. Thus, "before" can be considered to be basic to instants and derived for intervals.
before
Gives directionality to time. If a temporal entity T1 is before another temporal entity T2, then the end of T1 is before the beginning of T2. Thus, "before" can be considered to be basic to instants and derived for intervals.
Beginning of a temporal entity
has beginning
Beginning of a temporal entity.
Duration of a temporal entity, expressed as a scaled value or nominal value
has duration
Duration of a temporal entity, event or activity, or thing, expressed as a scaled value
End of a temporal entity.
has end
End of a temporal entity.
Duration of a temporal entity.
has temporal duration
Duration of a temporal entity.
Supports the association of a temporal entity (instant or interval) to any thing
has time
Supports the association of a temporal entity (instant or interval) to any thing
Feature at risk - added in 2017 revision, and not yet widely used.
An instant that falls inside the interval. It is not intended to include beginnings and ends of intervals.
has time instant inside
An instant that falls inside the interval. It is not intended to include beginnings and ends of intervals.
If a proper interval T1 is intervalAfter another proper interval T2, then the beginning of T1 is after the end of T2.
interval after
If a proper interval T1 is intervalAfter another proper interval T2, then the beginning of T1 is after the end of T2.
If a proper interval T1 is intervalBefore another proper interval T2, then the end of T1 is before the beginning of T2.
interval before
If a proper interval T1 is intervalBefore another proper interval T2, then the end of T1 is before the beginning of T2.
If a proper interval T1 is intervalContains another proper interval T2, then the beginning of T1 is before the beginning of T2, and the end of T1 is after the end of T2.
interval contains
If a proper interval T1 is intervalContains another proper interval T2, then the beginning of T1 is before the beginning of T2, and the end of T1 is after the end of T2.
If a proper interval T1 is intervalDisjoint another proper interval T2, then the beginning of T1 is after the end of T2, or the end of T1 is before the beginning of T2, i.e. the intervals do not overlap in any way, but their ordering relationship is not known.
interval disjoint
If a proper interval T1 is intervalDisjoint another proper interval T2, then the beginning of T1 is after the end of T2, or the end of T1 is before the beginning of T2, i.e. the intervals do not overlap in any way, but their ordering relationship is not known.
This interval relation is not included in the 13 basic relationships defined in Allen (1984), but is defined in (T.3) as the union of :intervalBefore v :intervalAfter . However, that is outside OWL2 expressivity, so is implemented as an explicit property, with :intervalBefore , :intervalAfter as sub-properties
If a proper interval T1 is intervalDuring another proper interval T2, then the beginning of T1 is after the beginning of T2, and the end of T1 is before the end of T2.
interval during
If a proper interval T1 is intervalDuring another proper interval T2, then the beginning of T1 is after the beginning of T2, and the end of T1 is before the end of T2.
If a proper interval T1 is intervalEquals another proper interval T2, then the beginning of T1 is coincident with the beginning of T2, and the end of T1 is coincident with the end of T2.
interval equals
If a proper interval T1 is intervalEquals another proper interval T2, then the beginning of T1 is coincident with the beginning of T2, and the end of T1 is coincident with the end of T2.
If a proper interval T1 is intervalFinishedBy another proper interval T2, then the beginning of T1 is before the beginning of T2, and the end of T1 is coincident with the end of T2.
interval finished by
If a proper interval T1 is intervalFinishedBy another proper interval T2, then the beginning of T1 is before the beginning of T2, and the end of T1 is coincident with the end of T2.
If a proper interval T1 is intervalFinishes another proper interval T2, then the beginning of T1 is after the beginning of T2, and the end of T1 is coincident with the end of T2.
interval finishes
If a proper interval T1 is intervalFinishes another proper interval T2, then the beginning of T1 is after the beginning of T2, and the end of T1 is coincident with the end of T2.
If a proper interval T1 is intervalIn another proper interval T2, then the beginning of T1 is after the beginning of T2 or is coincident with the beginning of T2, and the end of T1 is before the end of T2, or is coincident with the end of T2, except that end of T1 may not be coincident with the end of T2 if the beginning of T1 is coincident with the beginning of T2.
interval in
If a proper interval T1 is intervalIn another proper interval T2, then the beginning of T1 is after the beginning of T2 or is coincident with the beginning of T2, and the end of T1 is before the end of T2, or is coincident with the end of T2, except that end of T1 may not be coincident with the end of T2 if the beginning of T1 is coincident with the beginning of T2.
This interval relation is not included in the 13 basic relationships defined in Allen (1984), but is referred to as 'an important relationship' in Allen and Ferguson (1997). It is the disjoint union of :intervalStarts v :intervalDuring v :intervalFinishes . However, that is outside OWL2 expressivity, so is implemented as an explicit property, with :intervalStarts , :intervalDuring , :intervalFinishes as sub-properties
If a proper interval T1 is intervalMeets another proper interval T2, then the end of T1 is coincident with the beginning of T2.
interval meets
If a proper interval T1 is intervalMeets another proper interval T2, then the end of T1 is coincident with the beginning of T2.
If a proper interval T1 is intervalMetBy another proper interval T2, then the beginning of T1 is coincident with the end of T2.
interval met by
If a proper interval T1 is intervalMetBy another proper interval T2, then the beginning of T1 is coincident with the end of T2.
If a proper interval T1 is intervalOverlappedBy another proper interval T2, then the beginning of T1 is after the beginning of T2, the beginning of T1 is before the end of T2, and the end of T1 is after the end of T2.
interval overlapped by
If a proper interval T1 is intervalOverlappedBy another proper interval T2, then the beginning of T1 is after the beginning of T2, the beginning of T1 is before the end of T2, and the end of T1 is after the end of T2.
If a proper interval T1 is intervalOverlaps another proper interval T2, then the beginning of T1 is before the beginning of T2, the end of T1 is after the beginning of T2, and the end of T1 is before the end of T2.
interval overlaps
If a proper interval T1 is intervalOverlaps another proper interval T2, then the beginning of T1 is before the beginning of T2, the end of T1 is after the beginning of T2, and the end of T1 is before the end of T2.
If a proper interval T1 is intervalStarted another proper interval T2, then the beginning of T1 is coincident with the beginning of T2, and the end of T1 is after the end of T2.
interval started by
If a proper interval T1 is intervalStarted another proper interval T2, then the beginning of T1 is coincident with the beginning of T2, and the end of T1 is after the end of T2.
If a proper interval T1 is intervalStarts another proper interval T2, then the beginning of T1 is coincident with the beginning of T2, and the end of T1 is before the end of T2.
interval starts
If a proper interval T1 is intervalStarts another proper interval T2, then the beginning of T1 is coincident with the beginning of T2, and the end of T1 is before the end of T2.
The temporal unit which provides the precision of a date-time value or scale of a temporal extent
temporal unit type
A relation between an Observation and the entity whose quality was observed, or between an Actuation and the entity whose property was modified, or between an act of Sampling and the entity that was sampled.
has feature of interest
A relation between an Observation and the entity whose quality was observed, or between an Actuation and the entity whose property was modified, or between an act of Sampling and the entity that was sampled.
For example, in an Observation of the weight of a person, the FeatureOfInterest is the person and the property is its weight.
Relation linking an Observation or Actuation or act of Sampling and a Result or Sample.
has result
Relation linking an Observation or Actuation or act of Sampling and a Result or Sample.
A relation between a FeatureOfInterest and an Observation about it, an Actuation acting on it, or an act of Sampling that sampled it.
is feature of interest of
A relation between a FeatureOfInterest and an Observation about it, an Actuation acting on it, or an act of Sampling that sampled it.
Relation linking a Result to the Observation or Actuation or act of Sampling that created or caused it.
is result of
Relation linking a Result to the Observation or Actuation or act of Sampling that created or caused it.
Relation linking an act of Sampling to the Sampler (sampling device or entity) that made it.
made by sampler
Relation linking an act of Sampling to the Sampler (sampling device or entity) that made it.
Relation between an Observation and the Sensor which made the Observation.
made by sensor
Relation between an Observation and the Sensor which made the Observation.
Relation between a Sensor and an Observation made by the Sensor.
made observation
Relation between a Sensor and an Observation made by the Sensor.
Relation between a Sampler (sampling device or entity) and the Sampling act it performed.
made sampling
Relation between a Sampler (sampling device or entity) and the Sampling act it performed.
A relation to link to a re-usable Procedure used in making an Observation, an Actuation, or a Sample, typically through a Sensor, Actuator or Sampler.
used procedure
A relation to link to a re-usable Procedure used in making an Observation, an Actuation, or a Sample, typically through a Sensor, Actuator or Sampler.
Relation between an entity and a Property of that entity.
has property
Relation between an entity and a Property of that entity.
Relation between a Property and the entity it belongs to.
is property of
Relation between a Property and the entity it belongs to.
Value of a temporal extent expressed as a decimal number scaled by a temporal unit
Numeric value of temporal duration
Value of a temporal extent expressed as a decimal number scaled by a temporal unit
numeric value
The relative standard uncertainty of a measurement is the (absolute) standard uncertainty divided by the magnitude of the exact value.
relative standard uncertainty
The standard uncertainty of a quantity is the estimated standard deviation of the mean taken from a series of measurements.
standard uncertainty
Component
Component
MeasurementSeries
Measurement Series
Series of observational measurements of the same property. A measurement series is related to several sosa:results, which are assigned an index using the property 'has index', in order to preserve the measurement order.
QualitativeValue
Qualitative value
TransformationProcessObservation
An observation could be done on different scales, in a specific step, using different materials and methods, in order to produce an experimentation result
Transformation Process Observation
Observations act as a link between the step, its participants and the experimentation results
Measuring the temperature of water is an observation. This observation observes the water, using a thermometer and a specific method, in order to produce the temperature of the water as an observation result
Transformation_Process
Transformation Process
In PO², a transformation process is the main project, which contains different sub-processes called steps.
Preparing Pizza
Transformation of micro-organisms
observationScale
observation scale
Observations and experiments could be done on different scales. A scale is a graduated range of values forming a standard system for measuring or grading something.
In a certain experiment, one can observe a product as a whole and therefore the collected experimentation results will belong to the whole product. However, in another experiment, one can observe the same product but on a different and more precise scale. For example an observation made on a cellular scale, or on a molecular scale.
step
Every Process can have many itineraries, and every itinerary is different from other itineraries from its way of conducting the steps (different steps, different order,...)
Step
Steps are sub-processes of the main process, or a representation of the operation units
Fermentation is a step of the process Transformation of Micro-organisms
Preheating the oven and preparing the dough are two steps of the process Preparing Pizza
BFO:0000001
entity
Entity
Julius Caesar
Verdi’s Requiem
the Second World War
your body mass index
BFO 2 Reference: In all areas of empirical inquiry we encounter general terms of two sorts. First are general terms which refer to universals or types:animaltuberculosissurgical procedurediseaseSecond, are general terms used to refer to groups of entities which instantiate a given universal but do not correspond to the extension of any subuniversal of that universal because there is nothing intrinsic to the entities in question by virtue of which they – and only they – are counted as belonging to the given group. Examples are: animal purchased by the Emperortuberculosis diagnosed on a Wednesdaysurgical procedure performed on a patient from Stockholmperson identified as candidate for clinical trial #2056-555person who is signatory of Form 656-PPVpainting by Leonardo da VinciSuch terms, which represent what are called ‘specializations’ in [81
Entity doesn't have a closure axiom because the subclasses don't necessarily exhaust all possibilites. For example Werner Ceusters 'portions of reality' include 4 sorts, entities (as BFO construes them), universals, configurations, and relations. It is an open question as to whether entities as construed in BFO will at some point also include these other portions of reality. See, for example, 'How to track absolutely everything' at http://www.referent-tracking.com/_RTU/papers/CeustersICbookRevised.pdf
An entity is anything that exists or has existed or will exist. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [001-001])
entity
Entity doesn't have a closure axiom because the subclasses don't necessarily exhaust all possibilites. For example Werner Ceusters 'portions of reality' include 4 sorts, entities (as BFO construes them), universals, configurations, and relations. It is an open question as to whether entities as construed in BFO will at some point also include these other portions of reality. See, for example, 'How to track absolutely everything' at http://www.referent-tracking.com/_RTU/papers/CeustersICbookRevised.pdf
per discussion with Barry Smith
An entity is anything that exists or has existed or will exist. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [001-001])
BFO:0000002
continuant
Continuant
BFO 2 Reference: Continuant entities are entities which can be sliced to yield parts only along the spatial dimension, yielding for example the parts of your table which we call its legs, its top, its nails. ‘My desk stretches from the window to the door. It has spatial parts, and can be sliced (in space) in two. With respect to time, however, a thing is a continuant.’ [60, p. 240
Continuant doesn't have a closure axiom because the subclasses don't necessarily exhaust all possibilites. For example, in an expansion involving bringing in some of Ceuster's other portions of reality, questions are raised as to whether universals are continuants
A continuant is an entity that persists, endures, or continues to exist through time while maintaining its identity. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [008-002])
if b is a continuant and if, for some t, c has_continuant_part b at t, then c is a continuant. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [126-001])
if b is a continuant and if, for some t, cis continuant_part of b at t, then c is a continuant. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [009-002])
if b is a material entity, then there is some temporal interval (referred to below as a one-dimensional temporal region) during which b exists. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [011-002])
(forall (x y) (if (and (Continuant x) (exists (t) (continuantPartOfAt y x t))) (Continuant y))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [009-002]
(forall (x y) (if (and (Continuant x) (exists (t) (hasContinuantPartOfAt y x t))) (Continuant y))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [126-001]
(forall (x) (if (Continuant x) (Entity x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [008-002]
(forall (x) (if (Material Entity x) (exists (t) (and (TemporalRegion t) (existsAt x t))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [011-002]
continuant
if b is a material entity, then there is some temporal interval (referred to below as a one-dimensional temporal region) during which b exists. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [011-002])
(forall (x y) (if (and (Continuant x) (exists (t) (continuantPartOfAt y x t))) (Continuant y))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [009-002]
(forall (x y) (if (and (Continuant x) (exists (t) (hasContinuantPartOfAt y x t))) (Continuant y))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [126-001]
(forall (x) (if (Continuant x) (Entity x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [008-002]
(forall (x) (if (Material Entity x) (exists (t) (and (TemporalRegion t) (existsAt x t))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [011-002]
Continuant doesn't have a closure axiom because the subclasses don't necessarily exhaust all possibilites. For example, in an expansion involving bringing in some of Ceuster's other portions of reality, questions are raised as to whether universals are continuants
A continuant is an entity that persists, endures, or continues to exist through time while maintaining its identity. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [008-002])
if b is a continuant and if, for some t, c has_continuant_part b at t, then c is a continuant. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [126-001])
if b is a continuant and if, for some t, cis continuant_part of b at t, then c is a continuant. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [009-002])
BFO:0000003
occurrent
Occurrent
BFO 2 Reference: every occurrent that is not a temporal or spatiotemporal region is s-dependent on some independent continuant that is not a spatial region
BFO 2 Reference: s-dependence obtains between every process and its participants in the sense that, as a matter of necessity, this process could not have existed unless these or those participants existed also. A process may have a succession of participants at different phases of its unfolding. Thus there may be different players on the field at different times during the course of a football game; but the process which is the entire game s-depends_on all of these players nonetheless. Some temporal parts of this process will s-depend_on on only some of the players.
Occurrent doesn't have a closure axiom because the subclasses don't necessarily exhaust all possibilites. An example would be the sum of a process and the process boundary of another process.
Simons uses different terminology for relations of occurrents to regions: Denote the spatio-temporal location of a given occurrent e by 'spn[e]' and call this region its span. We may say an occurrent is at its span, in any larger region, and covers any smaller region. Now suppose we have fixed a frame of reference so that we can speak not merely of spatio-temporal but also of spatial regions (places) and temporal regions (times). The spread of an occurrent, (relative to a frame of reference) is the space it exactly occupies, and its spell is likewise the time it exactly occupies. We write 'spr[e]' and `spl[e]' respectively for the spread and spell of e, omitting mention of the frame.
An occurrent is an entity that unfolds itself in time or it is the instantaneous boundary of such an entity (for example a beginning or an ending) or it is a temporal or spatiotemporal region which such an entity occupies_temporal_region or occupies_spatiotemporal_region. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [077-002])
Every occurrent occupies_spatiotemporal_region some spatiotemporal region. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [108-001])
b is an occurrent entity iff b is an entity that has temporal parts. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [079-001])
(forall (x) (if (Occurrent x) (exists (r) (and (SpatioTemporalRegion r) (occupiesSpatioTemporalRegion x r))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [108-001]
(forall (x) (iff (Occurrent x) (and (Entity x) (exists (y) (temporalPartOf y x))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [079-001]
occurrent
Occurrent doesn't have a closure axiom because the subclasses don't necessarily exhaust all possibilites. An example would be the sum of a process and the process boundary of another process.
per discussion with Barry Smith
Simons uses different terminology for relations of occurrents to regions: Denote the spatio-temporal location of a given occurrent e by 'spn[e]' and call this region its span. We may say an occurrent is at its span, in any larger region, and covers any smaller region. Now suppose we have fixed a frame of reference so that we can speak not merely of spatio-temporal but also of spatial regions (places) and temporal regions (times). The spread of an occurrent, (relative to a frame of reference) is the space it exactly occupies, and its spell is likewise the time it exactly occupies. We write 'spr[e]' and `spl[e]' respectively for the spread and spell of e, omitting mention of the frame.
An occurrent is an entity that unfolds itself in time or it is the instantaneous boundary of such an entity (for example a beginning or an ending) or it is a temporal or spatiotemporal region which such an entity occupies_temporal_region or occupies_spatiotemporal_region. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [077-002])
Every occurrent occupies_spatiotemporal_region some spatiotemporal region. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [108-001])
b is an occurrent entity iff b is an entity that has temporal parts. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [079-001])
(forall (x) (if (Occurrent x) (exists (r) (and (SpatioTemporalRegion r) (occupiesSpatioTemporalRegion x r))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [108-001]
(forall (x) (iff (Occurrent x) (and (Entity x) (exists (y) (temporalPartOf y x))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [079-001]
BFO:0000004
ic
IndependentContinuant
a chair
a heart
a leg
a molecule
a spatial region
an atom
an orchestra.
an organism
the bottom right portion of a human torso
the interior of your mouth
b is an independent continuant = Def. b is a continuant which is such that there is no c and no t such that b s-depends_on c at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [017-002])
For any independent continuant b and any time t there is some spatial region r such that b is located_in r at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [134-001])
For every independent continuant b and time t during the region of time spanned by its life, there are entities which s-depends_on b during t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [018-002])
(forall (x t) (if (IndependentContinuant x) (exists (r) (and (SpatialRegion r) (locatedInAt x r t))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [134-001]
(forall (x t) (if (and (IndependentContinuant x) (existsAt x t)) (exists (y) (and (Entity y) (specificallyDependsOnAt y x t))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [018-002]
(iff (IndependentContinuant a) (and (Continuant a) (not (exists (b t) (specificallyDependsOnAt a b t))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [017-002]
independent continuant
b is an independent continuant = Def. b is a continuant which is such that there is no c and no t such that b s-depends_on c at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [017-002])
For any independent continuant b and any time t there is some spatial region r such that b is located_in r at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [134-001])
For every independent continuant b and time t during the region of time spanned by its life, there are entities which s-depends_on b during t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [018-002])
(forall (x t) (if (IndependentContinuant x) (exists (r) (and (SpatialRegion r) (locatedInAt x r t))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [134-001]
(forall (x t) (if (and (IndependentContinuant x) (existsAt x t)) (exists (y) (and (Entity y) (specificallyDependsOnAt y x t))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [018-002]
(iff (IndependentContinuant a) (and (Continuant a) (not (exists (b t) (specificallyDependsOnAt a b t))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [017-002]
BFO:0000006
s-region
SpatialRegion
BFO 2 Reference: Spatial regions do not participate in processes.
Spatial region doesn't have a closure axiom because the subclasses don't exhaust all possibilites. An example would be the union of a spatial point and a spatial line that doesn't overlap the point, or two spatial lines that intersect at a single point. In both cases the resultant spatial region is neither 0-dimensional, 1-dimensional, 2-dimensional, or 3-dimensional.
A spatial region is a continuant entity that is a continuant_part_of spaceR as defined relative to some frame R. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [035-001])
All continuant parts of spatial regions are spatial regions. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [036-001])
(forall (x y t) (if (and (SpatialRegion x) (continuantPartOfAt y x t)) (SpatialRegion y))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [036-001]
(forall (x) (if (SpatialRegion x) (Continuant x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [035-001]
spatial region
Spatial region doesn't have a closure axiom because the subclasses don't exhaust all possibilites. An example would be the union of a spatial point and a spatial line that doesn't overlap the point, or two spatial lines that intersect at a single point. In both cases the resultant spatial region is neither 0-dimensional, 1-dimensional, 2-dimensional, or 3-dimensional.
per discussion with Barry Smith
A spatial region is a continuant entity that is a continuant_part_of spaceR as defined relative to some frame R. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [035-001])
All continuant parts of spatial regions are spatial regions. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [036-001])
(forall (x y t) (if (and (SpatialRegion x) (continuantPartOfAt y x t)) (SpatialRegion y))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [036-001]
(forall (x) (if (SpatialRegion x) (Continuant x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [035-001]
BFO:0000008
t-region
TemporalRegion
Temporal region doesn't have a closure axiom because the subclasses don't exhaust all possibilites. An example would be the mereological sum of a temporal instant and a temporal interval that doesn't overlap the instant. In this case the resultant temporal region is neither 0-dimensional nor 1-dimensional
A temporal region is an occurrent entity that is part of time as defined relative to some reference frame. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [100-001])
All parts of temporal regions are temporal regions. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [101-001])
Every temporal region t is such that t occupies_temporal_region t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [119-002])
(forall (r) (if (TemporalRegion r) (occupiesTemporalRegion r r))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [119-002]
(forall (x y) (if (and (TemporalRegion x) (occurrentPartOf y x)) (TemporalRegion y))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [101-001]
(forall (x) (if (TemporalRegion x) (Occurrent x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [100-001]
temporal region
Temporal region doesn't have a closure axiom because the subclasses don't exhaust all possibilites. An example would be the mereological sum of a temporal instant and a temporal interval that doesn't overlap the instant. In this case the resultant temporal region is neither 0-dimensional nor 1-dimensional
per discussion with Barry Smith
A temporal region is an occurrent entity that is part of time as defined relative to some reference frame. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [100-001])
All parts of temporal regions are temporal regions. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [101-001])
Every temporal region t is such that t occupies_temporal_region t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [119-002])
(forall (r) (if (TemporalRegion r) (occupiesTemporalRegion r r))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [119-002]
(forall (x y) (if (and (TemporalRegion x) (occurrentPartOf y x)) (TemporalRegion y))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [101-001]
(forall (x) (if (TemporalRegion x) (Occurrent x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [100-001]
BFO:0000009
2d-s-region
TwoDimensionalSpatialRegion
an infinitely thin plane in space.
the surface of a sphere-shaped part of space
A two-dimensional spatial region is a spatial region that is of two dimensions. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [039-001])
(forall (x) (if (TwoDimensionalSpatialRegion x) (SpatialRegion x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [039-001]
two-dimensional spatial region
A two-dimensional spatial region is a spatial region that is of two dimensions. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [039-001])
(forall (x) (if (TwoDimensionalSpatialRegion x) (SpatialRegion x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [039-001]
BFO:0000011
st-region
SpatiotemporalRegion
the spatiotemporal region occupied by a human life
the spatiotemporal region occupied by a process of cellular meiosis.
the spatiotemporal region occupied by the development of a cancer tumor
A spatiotemporal region is an occurrent entity that is part of spacetime. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [095-001])
All parts of spatiotemporal regions are spatiotemporal regions. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [096-001])
Each spatiotemporal region at any time t projects_onto some spatial region at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [099-001])
Each spatiotemporal region projects_onto some temporal region. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [098-001])
Every spatiotemporal region occupies_spatiotemporal_region itself.
Every spatiotemporal region s is such that s occupies_spatiotemporal_region s. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [107-002])
(forall (r) (if (SpatioTemporalRegion r) (occupiesSpatioTemporalRegion r r))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [107-002]
(forall (x t) (if (SpatioTemporalRegion x) (exists (y) (and (SpatialRegion y) (spatiallyProjectsOntoAt x y t))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [099-001]
(forall (x y) (if (and (SpatioTemporalRegion x) (occurrentPartOf y x)) (SpatioTemporalRegion y))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [096-001]
(forall (x) (if (SpatioTemporalRegion x) (Occurrent x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [095-001]
(forall (x) (if (SpatioTemporalRegion x) (exists (y) (and (TemporalRegion y) (temporallyProjectsOnto x y))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [098-001]
spatiotemporal region
A spatiotemporal region is an occurrent entity that is part of spacetime. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [095-001])
All parts of spatiotemporal regions are spatiotemporal regions. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [096-001])
Each spatiotemporal region at any time t projects_onto some spatial region at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [099-001])
Each spatiotemporal region projects_onto some temporal region. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [098-001])
Every spatiotemporal region s is such that s occupies_spatiotemporal_region s. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [107-002])
(forall (r) (if (SpatioTemporalRegion r) (occupiesSpatioTemporalRegion r r))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [107-002]
(forall (x t) (if (SpatioTemporalRegion x) (exists (y) (and (SpatialRegion y) (spatiallyProjectsOntoAt x y t))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [099-001]
(forall (x y) (if (and (SpatioTemporalRegion x) (occurrentPartOf y x)) (SpatioTemporalRegion y))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [096-001]
(forall (x) (if (SpatioTemporalRegion x) (Occurrent x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [095-001]
(forall (x) (if (SpatioTemporalRegion x) (exists (y) (and (TemporalRegion y) (temporallyProjectsOnto x y))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [098-001]
BFO:0000015
process
Process
a process of cell-division, \ a beating of the heart
a process of meiosis
a process of sleeping
the course of a disease
the flight of a bird
the life of an organism
your process of aging.
p is a process = Def. p is an occurrent that has temporal proper parts and for some time t, p s-depends_on some material entity at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [083-003])
BFO 2 Reference: The realm of occurrents is less pervasively marked by the presence of natural units than is the case in the realm of independent continuants. Thus there is here no counterpart of ‘object’. In BFO 1.0 ‘process’ served as such a counterpart. In BFO 2.0 ‘process’ is, rather, the occurrent counterpart of ‘material entity’. Those natural – as contrasted with engineered, which here means: deliberately executed – units which do exist in the realm of occurrents are typically either parasitic on the existence of natural units on the continuant side, or they are fiat in nature. Thus we can count lives; we can count football games; we can count chemical reactions performed in experiments or in chemical manufacturing. We cannot count the processes taking place, for instance, in an episode of insect mating behavior.Even where natural units are identifiable, for example cycles in a cyclical process such as the beating of a heart or an organism’s sleep/wake cycle, the processes in question form a sequence with no discontinuities (temporal gaps) of the sort that we find for instance where billiard balls or zebrafish or planets are separated by clear spatial gaps. Lives of organisms are process units, but they too unfold in a continuous series from other, prior processes such as fertilization, and they unfold in turn in continuous series of post-life processes such as post-mortem decay. Clear examples of boundaries of processes are almost always of the fiat sort (midnight, a time of death as declared in an operating theater or on a death certificate, the initiation of a state of war)
(iff (Process a) (and (Occurrent a) (exists (b) (properTemporalPartOf b a)) (exists (c t) (and (MaterialEntity c) (specificallyDependsOnAt a c t))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [083-003]
process
p is a process = Def. p is an occurrent that has temporal proper parts and for some time t, p s-depends_on some material entity at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [083-003])
(iff (Process a) (and (Occurrent a) (exists (b) (properTemporalPartOf b a)) (exists (c t) (and (MaterialEntity c) (specificallyDependsOnAt a c t))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [083-003]
BFO:0000016
disposition
Disposition
an atom of element X has the disposition to decay to an atom of element Y
certain people have a predisposition to colon cancer
children are innately disposed to categorize objects in certain ways.
the cell wall is disposed to filter chemicals in endocytosis and exocytosis
BFO 2 Reference: Dispositions exist along a strength continuum. Weaker forms of disposition are realized in only a fraction of triggering cases. These forms occur in a significant number of cases of a similar type.
b is a disposition means: b is a realizable entity & b’s bearer is some material entity & b is such that if it ceases to exist, then its bearer is physically changed, & b’s realization occurs when and because this bearer is in some special physical circumstances, & this realization occurs in virtue of the bearer’s physical make-up. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [062-002])
If b is a realizable entity then for all t at which b exists, b s-depends_on some material entity at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [063-002])
(forall (x t) (if (and (RealizableEntity x) (existsAt x t)) (exists (y) (and (MaterialEntity y) (specificallyDepends x y t))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [063-002]
(forall (x) (if (Disposition x) (and (RealizableEntity x) (exists (y) (and (MaterialEntity y) (bearerOfAt x y t)))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [062-002]
disposition
b is a disposition means: b is a realizable entity & b’s bearer is some material entity & b is such that if it ceases to exist, then its bearer is physically changed, & b’s realization occurs when and because this bearer is in some special physical circumstances, & this realization occurs in virtue of the bearer’s physical make-up. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [062-002])
If b is a realizable entity then for all t at which b exists, b s-depends_on some material entity at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [063-002])
(forall (x t) (if (and (RealizableEntity x) (existsAt x t)) (exists (y) (and (MaterialEntity y) (specificallyDepends x y t))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [063-002]
(forall (x) (if (Disposition x) (and (RealizableEntity x) (exists (y) (and (MaterialEntity y) (bearerOfAt x y t)))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [062-002]
BFO:0000017
realizable
RealizableEntity
the disposition of this piece of metal to conduct electricity.
the disposition of your blood to coagulate
the function of your reproductive organs
the role of being a doctor
the role of this boundary to delineate where Utah and Colorado meet
To say that b is a realizable entity is to say that b is a specifically dependent continuant that inheres in some independent continuant which is not a spatial region and is of a type instances of which are realized in processes of a correlated type. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [058-002])
All realizable dependent continuants have independent continuants that are not spatial regions as their bearers. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [060-002])
(forall (x t) (if (RealizableEntity x) (exists (y) (and (IndependentContinuant y) (not (SpatialRegion y)) (bearerOfAt y x t))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [060-002]
(forall (x) (if (RealizableEntity x) (and (SpecificallyDependentContinuant x) (exists (y) (and (IndependentContinuant y) (not (SpatialRegion y)) (inheresIn x y)))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [058-002]
realizable entity
To say that b is a realizable entity is to say that b is a specifically dependent continuant that inheres in some independent continuant which is not a spatial region and is of a type instances of which are realized in processes of a correlated type. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [058-002])
All realizable dependent continuants have independent continuants that are not spatial regions as their bearers. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [060-002])
(forall (x t) (if (RealizableEntity x) (exists (y) (and (IndependentContinuant y) (not (SpatialRegion y)) (bearerOfAt y x t))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [060-002]
(forall (x) (if (RealizableEntity x) (and (SpecificallyDependentContinuant x) (exists (y) (and (IndependentContinuant y) (not (SpatialRegion y)) (inheresIn x y)))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [058-002]
BFO:0000018
0d-s-region
ZeroDimensionalSpatialRegion
A zero-dimensional spatial region is a point in space. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [037-001])
(forall (x) (if (ZeroDimensionalSpatialRegion x) (SpatialRegion x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [037-001]
zero-dimensional spatial region
A zero-dimensional spatial region is a point in space. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [037-001])
(forall (x) (if (ZeroDimensionalSpatialRegion x) (SpatialRegion x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [037-001]
BFO:0000019
quality
Quality
the ambient temperature of this portion of air
the color of a tomato
the length of the circumference of your waist
the mass of this piece of gold.
the shape of your nose
the shape of your nostril
a quality is a specifically dependent continuant that, in contrast to roles and dispositions, does not require any further process in order to be realized. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [055-001])
If an entity is a quality at any time that it exists, then it is a quality at every time that it exists. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [105-001])
(forall (x) (if (Quality x) (SpecificallyDependentContinuant x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [055-001]
(forall (x) (if (exists (t) (and (existsAt x t) (Quality x))) (forall (t_1) (if (existsAt x t_1) (Quality x))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [105-001]
quality
a quality is a specifically dependent continuant that, in contrast to roles and dispositions, does not require any further process in order to be realized. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [055-001])
If an entity is a quality at any time that it exists, then it is a quality at every time that it exists. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [105-001])
(forall (x) (if (Quality x) (SpecificallyDependentContinuant x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [055-001]
(forall (x) (if (exists (t) (and (existsAt x t) (Quality x))) (forall (t_1) (if (existsAt x t_1) (Quality x))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [105-001]
BFO:0000020
sdc
SpecificallyDependentContinuant
Reciprocal specifically dependent continuants: the function of this key to open this lock and the mutually dependent disposition of this lock: to be opened by this key
of one-sided specifically dependent continuants: the mass of this tomato
of relational dependent continuants (multiple bearers): John’s love for Mary, the ownership relation between John and this statue, the relation of authority between John and his subordinates.
the disposition of this fish to decay
the function of this heart: to pump blood
the mutual dependence of proton donors and acceptors in chemical reactions [79
the mutual dependence of the role predator and the role prey as played by two organisms in a given interaction
the pink color of a medium rare piece of grilled filet mignon at its center
the role of being a doctor
the shape of this hole.
the smell of this portion of mozzarella
b is a specifically dependent continuant = Def. b is a continuant & there is some independent continuant c which is not a spatial region and which is such that b s-depends_on c at every time t during the course of b’s existence. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [050-003])
Specifically dependent continuant doesn't have a closure axiom because the subclasses don't necessarily exhaust all possibilites. We're not sure what else will develop here, but for example there are questions such as what are promises, obligation, etc.
(iff (SpecificallyDependentContinuant a) (and (Continuant a) (forall (t) (if (existsAt a t) (exists (b) (and (IndependentContinuant b) (not (SpatialRegion b)) (specificallyDependsOnAt a b t))))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [050-003]
specifically dependent continuant
b is a specifically dependent continuant = Def. b is a continuant & there is some independent continuant c which is not a spatial region and which is such that b s-depends_on c at every time t during the course of b’s existence. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [050-003])
Specifically dependent continuant doesn't have a closure axiom because the subclasses don't necessarily exhaust all possibilites. We're not sure what else will develop here, but for example there are questions such as what are promises, obligation, etc.
per discussion with Barry Smith
(iff (SpecificallyDependentContinuant a) (and (Continuant a) (forall (t) (if (existsAt a t) (exists (b) (and (IndependentContinuant b) (not (SpatialRegion b)) (specificallyDependsOnAt a b t))))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [050-003]
BFO:0000023
role
Role
John’s role of husband to Mary is dependent on Mary’s role of wife to John, and both are dependent on the object aggregate comprising John and Mary as member parts joined together through the relational quality of being married.
the priest role
the role of a boundary to demarcate two neighboring administrative territories
the role of a building in serving as a military target
the role of a stone in marking a property boundary
the role of subject in a clinical trial
the student role
BFO 2 Reference: One major family of examples of non-rigid universals involves roles, and ontologies developed for corresponding administrative purposes may consist entirely of representatives of entities of this sort. Thus ‘professor’, defined as follows,b instance_of professor at t =Def. there is some c, c instance_of professor role & c inheres_in b at t.denotes a non-rigid universal and so also do ‘nurse’, ‘student’, ‘colonel’, ‘taxpayer’, and so forth. (These terms are all, in the jargon of philosophy, phase sortals.) By using role terms in definitions, we can create a BFO conformant treatment of such entities drawing on the fact that, while an instance of professor may be simultaneously an instance of trade union member, no instance of the type professor role is also (at any time) an instance of the type trade union member role (any more than any instance of the type color is at any time an instance of the type length).If an ontology of employment positions should be defined in terms of roles following the above pattern, this enables the ontology to do justice to the fact that individuals instantiate the corresponding universals – professor, sergeant, nurse – only during certain phases in their lives.
b is a role means: b is a realizable entity & b exists because there is some single bearer that is in some special physical, social, or institutional set of circumstances in which this bearer does not have to be& b is not such that, if it ceases to exist, then the physical make-up of the bearer is thereby changed. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [061-001])
(forall (x) (if (Role x) (RealizableEntity x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [061-001]
role
b is a role means: b is a realizable entity & b exists because there is some single bearer that is in some special physical, social, or institutional set of circumstances in which this bearer does not have to be& b is not such that, if it ceases to exist, then the physical make-up of the bearer is thereby changed. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [061-001])
(forall (x) (if (Role x) (RealizableEntity x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [061-001]
BFO:0000024
fiat-object-part
FiatObjectPart
or with divisions drawn by cognitive subjects for practical reasons, such as the division of a cake (before slicing) into (what will become) slices (and thus member parts of an object aggregate). However, this does not mean that fiat object parts are dependent for their existence on divisions or delineations effected by cognitive subjects. If, for example, it is correct to conceive geological layers of the Earth as fiat object parts of the Earth, then even though these layers were first delineated in recent times, still existed long before such delineation and what holds of these layers (for example that the oldest layers are also the lowest layers) did not begin to hold because of our acts of delineation.Treatment of material entity in BFOExamples viewed by some as problematic cases for the trichotomy of fiat object part, object, and object aggregate include: a mussel on (and attached to) a rock, a slime mold, a pizza, a cloud, a galaxy, a railway train with engine and multiple carriages, a clonal stand of quaking aspen, a bacterial community (biofilm), a broken femur. Note that, as Aristotle already clearly recognized, such problematic cases – which lie at or near the penumbra of instances defined by the categories in question – need not invalidate these categories. The existence of grey objects does not prove that there are not objects which are black and objects which are white; the existence of mules does not prove that there are not objects which are donkeys and objects which are horses. It does, however, show that the examples in question need to be addressed carefully in order to show how they can be fitted into the proposed scheme, for example by recognizing additional subdivisions [29
the FMA:regional parts of an intact human body.
the Western hemisphere of the Earth
the division of the brain into regions
the division of the planet into hemispheres
the dorsal and ventral surfaces of the body
the upper and lower lobes of the left lung
BFO 2 Reference: Most examples of fiat object parts are associated with theoretically drawn divisions
b is a fiat object part = Def. b is a material entity which is such that for all times t, if b exists at t then there is some object c such that b proper continuant_part of c at t and c is demarcated from the remainder of c by a two-dimensional continuant fiat boundary. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [027-004])
(forall (x) (if (FiatObjectPart x) (and (MaterialEntity x) (forall (t) (if (existsAt x t) (exists (y) (and (Object y) (properContinuantPartOfAt x y t)))))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [027-004]
fiat object part
b is a fiat object part = Def. b is a material entity which is such that for all times t, if b exists at t then there is some object c such that b proper continuant_part of c at t and c is demarcated from the remainder of c by a two-dimensional continuant fiat boundary. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [027-004])
(forall (x) (if (FiatObjectPart x) (and (MaterialEntity x) (forall (t) (if (existsAt x t) (exists (y) (and (Object y) (properContinuantPartOfAt x y t)))))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [027-004]
BFO:0000026
1d-s-region
OneDimensionalSpatialRegion
an edge of a cube-shaped portion of space.
A one-dimensional spatial region is a line or aggregate of lines stretching from one point in space to another. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [038-001])
(forall (x) (if (OneDimensionalSpatialRegion x) (SpatialRegion x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [038-001]
one-dimensional spatial region
A one-dimensional spatial region is a line or aggregate of lines stretching from one point in space to another. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [038-001])
(forall (x) (if (OneDimensionalSpatialRegion x) (SpatialRegion x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [038-001]
BFO:0000027
object-aggregate
ObjectAggregate
a collection of cells in a blood biobank.
a swarm of bees is an aggregate of members who are linked together through natural bonds
a symphony orchestra
an organization is an aggregate whose member parts have roles of specific types (for example in a jazz band, a chess club, a football team)
defined by fiat: the aggregate of members of an organization
defined through physical attachment: the aggregate of atoms in a lump of granite
defined through physical containment: the aggregate of molecules of carbon dioxide in a sealed container
defined via attributive delimitations such as: the patients in this hospital
the aggregate of bearings in a constant velocity axle joint
the aggregate of blood cells in your body
the nitrogen atoms in the atmosphere
the restaurants in Palo Alto
your collection of Meissen ceramic plates.
An entity a is an object aggregate if and only if there is a mutually exhaustive and pairwise disjoint partition of a into objects
BFO 2 Reference: object aggregates may gain and lose parts while remaining numerically identical (one and the same individual) over time. This holds both for aggregates whose membership is determined naturally (the aggregate of cells in your body) and aggregates determined by fiat (a baseball team, a congressional committee).
ISBN:978-3-938793-98-5pp124-158#Thomas Bittner and Barry Smith, 'A Theory of Granular Partitions', in K. Munn and B. Smith (eds.), Applied Ontology: An Introduction, Frankfurt/Lancaster: ontos, 2008, 125-158.
b is an object aggregate means: b is a material entity consisting exactly of a plurality of objects as member_parts at all times at which b exists. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [025-004])
(forall (x) (if (ObjectAggregate x) (and (MaterialEntity x) (forall (t) (if (existsAt x t) (exists (y z) (and (Object y) (Object z) (memberPartOfAt y x t) (memberPartOfAt z x t) (not (= y z)))))) (not (exists (w t_1) (and (memberPartOfAt w x t_1) (not (Object w)))))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [025-004]
object aggregate
An entity a is an object aggregate if and only if there is a mutually exhaustive and pairwise disjoint partition of a into objects
An entity a is an object aggregate if and only if there is a mutually exhaustive and pairwise disjoint partition of a into objects
ISBN:978-3-938793-98-5pp124-158#Thomas Bittner and Barry Smith, 'A Theory of Granular Partitions', in K. Munn and B. Smith (eds.), Applied Ontology: An Introduction, Frankfurt/Lancaster: ontos, 2008, 125-158.
b is an object aggregate means: b is a material entity consisting exactly of a plurality of objects as member_parts at all times at which b exists. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [025-004])
(forall (x) (if (ObjectAggregate x) (and (MaterialEntity x) (forall (t) (if (existsAt x t) (exists (y z) (and (Object y) (Object z) (memberPartOfAt y x t) (memberPartOfAt z x t) (not (= y z)))))) (not (exists (w t_1) (and (memberPartOfAt w x t_1) (not (Object w)))))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [025-004]
BFO:0000028
3d-s-region
ThreeDimensionalSpatialRegion
a cube-shaped region of space
a sphere-shaped region of space,
A three-dimensional spatial region is a spatial region that is of three dimensions. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [040-001])
(forall (x) (if (ThreeDimensionalSpatialRegion x) (SpatialRegion x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [040-001]
three-dimensional spatial region
A three-dimensional spatial region is a spatial region that is of three dimensions. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [040-001])
(forall (x) (if (ThreeDimensionalSpatialRegion x) (SpatialRegion x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [040-001]
BFO:0000029
site
Site
Manhattan Canyon)
a hole in the interior of a portion of cheese
a rabbit hole
an air traffic control region defined in the airspace above an airport
the Grand Canyon
the Piazza San Marco
the cockpit of an aircraft
the hold of a ship
the interior of a kangaroo pouch
the interior of the trunk of your car
the interior of your bedroom
the interior of your office
the interior of your refrigerator
the lumen of your gut
your left nostril (a fiat part – the opening – of your left nasal cavity)
b is a site means: b is a three-dimensional immaterial entity that is (partially or wholly) bounded by a material entity or it is a three-dimensional immaterial part thereof. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [034-002])
(forall (x) (if (Site x) (ImmaterialEntity x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [034-002]
site
b is a site means: b is a three-dimensional immaterial entity that is (partially or wholly) bounded by a material entity or it is a three-dimensional immaterial part thereof. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [034-002])
(forall (x) (if (Site x) (ImmaterialEntity x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [034-002]
BFO:0000030
object
Object
atom
cell
cells and organisms
engineered artifacts
grain of sand
molecule
organelle
organism
planet
solid portions of matter
star
BFO 2 Reference: BFO rests on the presupposition that at multiple micro-, meso- and macroscopic scales reality exhibits certain stable, spatially separated or separable material units, combined or combinable into aggregates of various sorts (for example organisms into what are called ‘populations’). Such units play a central role in almost all domains of natural science from particle physics to cosmology. Many scientific laws govern the units in question, employing general terms (such as ‘molecule’ or ‘planet’) referring to the types and subtypes of units, and also to the types and subtypes of the processes through which such units develop and interact. The division of reality into such natural units is at the heart of biological science, as also is the fact that these units may form higher-level units (as cells form multicellular organisms) and that they may also form aggregates of units, for example as cells form portions of tissue and organs form families, herds, breeds, species, and so on. At the same time, the division of certain portions of reality into engineered units (manufactured artifacts) is the basis of modern industrial technology, which rests on the distributed mass production of engineered parts through division of labor and on their assembly into larger, compound units such as cars and laptops. The division of portions of reality into units is one starting point for the phenomenon of counting.
BFO 2 Reference: Each object is such that there are entities of which we can assert unproblematically that they lie in its interior, and other entities of which we can assert unproblematically that they lie in its exterior. This may not be so for entities lying at or near the boundary between the interior and exterior. This means that two objects – for example the two cells depicted in Figure 3 – may be such that there are material entities crossing their boundaries which belong determinately to neither cell. Something similar obtains in certain cases of conjoined twins (see below).
BFO 2 Reference: To say that b is causally unified means: b is a material entity which is such that its material parts are tied together in such a way that, in environments typical for entities of the type in question,if c, a continuant part of b that is in the interior of b at t, is larger than a certain threshold size (which will be determined differently from case to case, depending on factors such as porosity of external cover) and is moved in space to be at t at a location on the exterior of the spatial region that had been occupied by b at t, then either b’s other parts will be moved in coordinated fashion or b will be damaged (be affected, for example, by breakage or tearing) in the interval between t and t.causal changes in one part of b can have consequences for other parts of b without the mediation of any entity that lies on the exterior of b. Material entities with no proper material parts would satisfy these conditions trivially. Candidate examples of types of causal unity for material entities of more complex sorts are as follows (this is not intended to be an exhaustive list):CU1: Causal unity via physical coveringHere the parts in the interior of the unified entity are combined together causally through a common membrane or other physical covering\. The latter points outwards toward and may serve a protective function in relation to what lies on the exterior of the entity [13, 47
BFO 2 Reference: an object is a maximal causally unified material entity
BFO 2 Reference: ‘objects’ are sometimes referred to as ‘grains’ [74
b is an object means: b is a material entity which manifests causal unity of one or other of the types CUn listed above & is of a type (a material universal) instances of which are maximal relative to this criterion of causal unity. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [024-001])
object
b is an object means: b is a material entity which manifests causal unity of one or other of the types CUn listed above & is of a type (a material universal) instances of which are maximal relative to this criterion of causal unity. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [024-001])
BFO:0000031
gdc
GenericallyDependentContinuant
The entries in your database are patterns instantiated as quality instances in your hard drive. The database itself is an aggregate of such patterns. When you create the database you create a particular instance of the generically dependent continuant type database. Each entry in the database is an instance of the generically dependent continuant type IAO: information content entity.
the pdf file on your laptop, the pdf file that is a copy thereof on my laptop
the sequence of this protein molecule; the sequence that is a copy thereof in that protein molecule.
b is a generically dependent continuant = Def. b is a continuant that g-depends_on one or more other entities. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [074-001])
(iff (GenericallyDependentContinuant a) (and (Continuant a) (exists (b t) (genericallyDependsOnAt a b t)))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [074-001]
generically dependent continuant
b is a generically dependent continuant = Def. b is a continuant that g-depends_on one or more other entities. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [074-001])
(iff (GenericallyDependentContinuant a) (and (Continuant a) (exists (b t) (genericallyDependsOnAt a b t)))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [074-001]
BFO:0000034
function
Function
the function of a hammer to drive in nails
the function of a heart pacemaker to regulate the beating of a heart through electricity
the function of amylase in saliva to break down starch into sugar
BFO 2 Reference: In the past, we have distinguished two varieties of function, artifactual function and biological function. These are not asserted subtypes of BFO:function however, since the same function – for example: to pump, to transport – can exist both in artifacts and in biological entities. The asserted subtypes of function that would be needed in order to yield a separate monoheirarchy are not artifactual function, biological function, etc., but rather transporting function, pumping function, etc.
A function is a disposition that exists in virtue of the bearer’s physical make-up and this physical make-up is something the bearer possesses because it came into being, either through evolution (in the case of natural biological entities) or through intentional design (in the case of artifacts), in order to realize processes of a certain sort. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [064-001])
(forall (x) (if (Function x) (Disposition x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [064-001]
function
A function is a disposition that exists in virtue of the bearer’s physical make-up and this physical make-up is something the bearer possesses because it came into being, either through evolution (in the case of natural biological entities) or through intentional design (in the case of artifacts), in order to realize processes of a certain sort. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [064-001])
(forall (x) (if (Function x) (Disposition x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [064-001]
BFO:0000035
p-boundary
ProcessBoundary
the boundary between the 2nd and 3rd year of your life.
p is a process boundary =Def. p is a temporal part of a process & p has no proper temporal parts. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [084-001])
Every process boundary occupies_temporal_region a zero-dimensional temporal region. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [085-002])
(forall (x) (if (ProcessBoundary x) (exists (y) (and (ZeroDimensionalTemporalRegion y) (occupiesTemporalRegion x y))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [085-002]
(iff (ProcessBoundary a) (exists (p) (and (Process p) (temporalPartOf a p) (not (exists (b) (properTemporalPartOf b a)))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [084-001]
process boundary
p is a process boundary =Def. p is a temporal part of a process & p has no proper temporal parts. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [084-001])
Every process boundary occupies_temporal_region a zero-dimensional temporal region. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [085-002])
(forall (x) (if (ProcessBoundary x) (exists (y) (and (ZeroDimensionalTemporalRegion y) (occupiesTemporalRegion x y))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [085-002]
(iff (ProcessBoundary a) (exists (p) (and (Process p) (temporalPartOf a p) (not (exists (b) (properTemporalPartOf b a)))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [084-001]
BFO:0000038
1d-t-region
OneDimensionalTemporalRegion
the temporal region during which a process occurs.
BFO 2 Reference: A temporal interval is a special kind of one-dimensional temporal region, namely one that is self-connected (is without gaps or breaks).
A one-dimensional temporal region is a temporal region that is extended. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [103-001])
(forall (x) (if (OneDimensionalTemporalRegion x) (TemporalRegion x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [103-001]
one-dimensional temporal region
A one-dimensional temporal region is a temporal region that is extended. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [103-001])
(forall (x) (if (OneDimensionalTemporalRegion x) (TemporalRegion x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [103-001]
BFO:0000040
material
MaterialEntity
a flame
a forest fire
a human being
a hurricane
a photon
a puff of smoke
a sea wave
a tornado
an aggregate of human beings.
an energy wave
an epidemic
the undetached arm of a human being
BFO 2 Reference: Material entities (continuants) can preserve their identity even while gaining and losing material parts. Continuants are contrasted with occurrents, which unfold themselves in successive temporal parts or phases [60
BFO 2 Reference: Object, Fiat Object Part and Object Aggregate are not intended to be exhaustive of Material Entity. Users are invited to propose new subcategories of Material Entity.
BFO 2 Reference: ‘Matter’ is intended to encompass both mass and energy (we will address the ontological treatment of portions of energy in a later version of BFO). A portion of matter is anything that includes elementary particles among its proper or improper parts: quarks and leptons, including electrons, as the smallest particles thus far discovered; baryons (including protons and neutrons) at a higher level of granularity; atoms and molecules at still higher levels, forming the cells, organs, organisms and other material entities studied by biologists, the portions of rock studied by geologists, the fossils studied by paleontologists, and so on.Material entities are three-dimensional entities (entities extended in three spatial dimensions), as contrasted with the processes in which they participate, which are four-dimensional entities (entities extended also along the dimension of time).According to the FMA, material entities may have immaterial entities as parts – including the entities identified below as sites; for example the interior (or ‘lumen’) of your small intestine is a part of your body. BFO 2.0 embodies a decision to follow the FMA here.
A material entity is an independent continuant that has some portion of matter as proper or improper continuant part. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [019-002])
Every entity which has a material entity as continuant part is a material entity. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [020-002])
every entity of which a material entity is continuant part is also a material entity. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [021-002])
(forall (x) (if (MaterialEntity x) (IndependentContinuant x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [019-002]
(forall (x) (if (and (Entity x) (exists (y t) (and (MaterialEntity y) (continuantPartOfAt x y t)))) (MaterialEntity x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [021-002]
(forall (x) (if (and (Entity x) (exists (y t) (and (MaterialEntity y) (continuantPartOfAt y x t)))) (MaterialEntity x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [020-002]
material entity
(forall (x) (if (MaterialEntity x) (IndependentContinuant x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [019-002]
(forall (x) (if (and (Entity x) (exists (y t) (and (MaterialEntity y) (continuantPartOfAt x y t)))) (MaterialEntity x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [021-002]
(forall (x) (if (and (Entity x) (exists (y t) (and (MaterialEntity y) (continuantPartOfAt y x t)))) (MaterialEntity x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [020-002]
A material entity is an independent continuant that has some portion of matter as proper or improper continuant part. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [019-002])
Every entity which has a material entity as continuant part is a material entity. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [020-002])
every entity of which a material entity is continuant part is also a material entity. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [021-002])
BFO:0000140
cf-boundary
ContinuantFiatBoundary
b is a continuant fiat boundary = Def. b is an immaterial entity that is of zero, one or two dimensions and does not include a spatial region as part. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [029-001])
BFO 2 Reference: In BFO 1.1 the assumption was made that the external surface of a material entity such as a cell could be treated as if it were a boundary in the mathematical sense. The new document propounds the view that when we talk about external surfaces of material objects in this way then we are talking about something fiat. To be dealt with in a future version: fiat boundaries at different levels of granularity.More generally, the focus in discussion of boundaries in BFO 2.0 is now on fiat boundaries, which means: boundaries for which there is no assumption that they coincide with physical discontinuities. The ontology of boundaries becomes more closely allied with the ontology of regions.
BFO 2 Reference: a continuant fiat boundary is a boundary of some material entity (for example: the plane separating the Northern and Southern hemispheres; the North Pole), or it is a boundary of some immaterial entity (for example of some portion of airspace). Three basic kinds of continuant fiat boundary can be distinguished (together with various combination kinds [29
Continuant fiat boundary doesn't have a closure axiom because the subclasses don't necessarily exhaust all possibilites. An example would be the mereological sum of two-dimensional continuant fiat boundary and a one dimensional continuant fiat boundary that doesn't overlap it. The situation is analogous to temporal and spatial regions.
Every continuant fiat boundary is located at some spatial region at every time at which it exists
(iff (ContinuantFiatBoundary a) (and (ImmaterialEntity a) (exists (b) (and (or (ZeroDimensionalSpatialRegion b) (OneDimensionalSpatialRegion b) (TwoDimensionalSpatialRegion b)) (forall (t) (locatedInAt a b t)))) (not (exists (c t) (and (SpatialRegion c) (continuantPartOfAt c a t)))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [029-001]
continuant fiat boundary
b is a continuant fiat boundary = Def. b is an immaterial entity that is of zero, one or two dimensions and does not include a spatial region as part. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [029-001])
Continuant fiat boundary doesn't have a closure axiom because the subclasses don't necessarily exhaust all possibilites. An example would be the mereological sum of two-dimensional continuant fiat boundary and a one dimensional continuant fiat boundary that doesn't overlap it. The situation is analogous to temporal and spatial regions.
(iff (ContinuantFiatBoundary a) (and (ImmaterialEntity a) (exists (b) (and (or (ZeroDimensionalSpatialRegion b) (OneDimensionalSpatialRegion b) (TwoDimensionalSpatialRegion b)) (forall (t) (locatedInAt a b t)))) (not (exists (c t) (and (SpatialRegion c) (continuantPartOfAt c a t)))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [029-001]
BFO:0000141
immaterial
ImmaterialEntity
BFO 2 Reference: Immaterial entities are divided into two subgroups:boundaries and sites, which bound, or are demarcated in relation, to material entities, and which can thus change location, shape and size and as their material hosts move or change shape or size (for example: your nasal passage; the hold of a ship; the boundary of Wales (which moves with the rotation of the Earth) [38, 7, 10
immaterial entity
BFO:0000142
1d-cf-boundary
OneDimensionalContinuantFiatBoundary
The Equator
all geopolitical boundaries
all lines of latitude and longitude
the line separating the outer surface of the mucosa of the lower lip from the outer surface of the skin of the chin.
the median sulcus of your tongue
a one-dimensional continuant fiat boundary is a continuous fiat line whose location is defined in relation to some material entity. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [032-001])
(iff (OneDimensionalContinuantFiatBoundary a) (and (ContinuantFiatBoundary a) (exists (b) (and (OneDimensionalSpatialRegion b) (forall (t) (locatedInAt a b t)))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [032-001]
one-dimensional continuant fiat boundary
a one-dimensional continuant fiat boundary is a continuous fiat line whose location is defined in relation to some material entity. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [032-001])
(iff (OneDimensionalContinuantFiatBoundary a) (and (ContinuantFiatBoundary a) (exists (b) (and (OneDimensionalSpatialRegion b) (forall (t) (locatedInAt a b t)))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [032-001]
BFO:0000144
process-profile
ProcessProfile
On a somewhat higher level of complexity are what we shall call rate process profiles, which are the targets of selective abstraction focused not on determinate quality magnitudes plotted over time, but rather on certain ratios between these magnitudes and elapsed times. A speed process profile, for example, is represented by a graph plotting against time the ratio of distance covered per unit of time. Since rates may change, and since such changes, too, may have rates of change, we have to deal here with a hierarchy of process profile universals at successive levels
One important sub-family of rate process profiles is illustrated by the beat or frequency profiles of cyclical processes, illustrated by the 60 beats per minute beating process of John’s heart, or the 120 beats per minute drumming process involved in one of John’s performances in a rock band, and so on. Each such process includes what we shall call a beat process profile instance as part, a subtype of rate process profile in which the salient ratio is not distance covered but rather number of beat cycles per unit of time. Each beat process profile instance instantiates the determinable universal beat process profile. But it also instantiates multiple more specialized universals at lower levels of generality, selected from rate process profilebeat process profileregular beat process profile3 bpm beat process profile4 bpm beat process profileirregular beat process profileincreasing beat process profileand so on.In the case of a regular beat process profile, a rate can be assigned in the simplest possible fashion by dividing the number of cycles by the length of the temporal region occupied by the beating process profile as a whole. Irregular process profiles of this sort, for example as identified in the clinic, or in the readings on an aircraft instrument panel, are often of diagnostic significance.
The simplest type of process profiles are what we shall call ‘quality process profiles’, which are the process profiles which serve as the foci of the sort of selective abstraction that is involved when measurements are made of changes in single qualities, as illustrated, for example, by process profiles of mass, temperature, aortic pressure, and so on.
b is a process_profile =Def. there is some process c such that b process_profile_of c (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [093-002])
b process_profile_of c holds when b proper_occurrent_part_of c& there is some proper_occurrent_part d of c which has no parts in common with b & is mutually dependent on b& is such that b, c and d occupy the same temporal region (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [094-005])
(forall (x y) (if (processProfileOf x y) (and (properContinuantPartOf x y) (exists (z t) (and (properOccurrentPartOf z y) (TemporalRegion t) (occupiesSpatioTemporalRegion x t) (occupiesSpatioTemporalRegion y t) (occupiesSpatioTemporalRegion z t) (not (exists (w) (and (occurrentPartOf w x) (occurrentPartOf w z))))))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [094-005]
(iff (ProcessProfile a) (exists (b) (and (Process b) (processProfileOf a b)))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [093-002]
process profile
b is a process_profile =Def. there is some process c such that b process_profile_of c (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [093-002])
b process_profile_of c holds when b proper_occurrent_part_of c& there is some proper_occurrent_part d of c which has no parts in common with b & is mutually dependent on b& is such that b, c and d occupy the same temporal region (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [094-005])
(forall (x y) (if (processProfileOf x y) (and (properContinuantPartOf x y) (exists (z t) (and (properOccurrentPartOf z y) (TemporalRegion t) (occupiesSpatioTemporalRegion x t) (occupiesSpatioTemporalRegion y t) (occupiesSpatioTemporalRegion z t) (not (exists (w) (and (occurrentPartOf w x) (occurrentPartOf w z))))))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [094-005]
(iff (ProcessProfile a) (exists (b) (and (Process b) (processProfileOf a b)))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [093-002]
BFO:0000145
r-quality
RelationalQuality
John’s role of husband to Mary is dependent on Mary’s role of wife to John, and both are dependent on the object aggregate comprising John and Mary as member parts joined together through the relational quality of being married.
a marriage bond, an instance of love, an obligation between one person and another.
b is a relational quality = Def. for some independent continuants c, d and for some time t: b quality_of c at t & b quality_of d at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [057-001])
(iff (RelationalQuality a) (exists (b c t) (and (IndependentContinuant b) (IndependentContinuant c) (qualityOfAt a b t) (qualityOfAt a c t)))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [057-001]
relational quality
b is a relational quality = Def. for some independent continuants c, d and for some time t: b quality_of c at t & b quality_of d at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [057-001])
(iff (RelationalQuality a) (exists (b c t) (and (IndependentContinuant b) (IndependentContinuant c) (qualityOfAt a b t) (qualityOfAt a c t)))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [057-001]
BFO:0000146
2d-cf-boundary
TwoDimensionalContinuantFiatBoundary
a two-dimensional continuant fiat boundary (surface) is a self-connected fiat surface whose location is defined in relation to some material entity. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [033-001])
(iff (TwoDimensionalContinuantFiatBoundary a) (and (ContinuantFiatBoundary a) (exists (b) (and (TwoDimensionalSpatialRegion b) (forall (t) (locatedInAt a b t)))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [033-001]
two-dimensional continuant fiat boundary
a two-dimensional continuant fiat boundary (surface) is a self-connected fiat surface whose location is defined in relation to some material entity. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [033-001])
(iff (TwoDimensionalContinuantFiatBoundary a) (and (ContinuantFiatBoundary a) (exists (b) (and (TwoDimensionalSpatialRegion b) (forall (t) (locatedInAt a b t)))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [033-001]
BFO:0000147
0d-cf-boundary
ZeroDimensionalContinuantFiatBoundary
the geographic North Pole
the point of origin of some spatial coordinate system.
the quadripoint where the boundaries of Colorado, Utah, New Mexico, and Arizona meet
zero dimension continuant fiat boundaries are not spatial points. Considering the example 'the quadripoint where the boundaries of Colorado, Utah, New Mexico, and Arizona meet' : There are many frames in which that point is zooming through many points in space. Whereas, no matter what the frame, the quadripoint is always in the same relation to the boundaries of Colorado, Utah, New Mexico, and Arizona.
a zero-dimensional continuant fiat boundary is a fiat point whose location is defined in relation to some material entity. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [031-001])
(iff (ZeroDimensionalContinuantFiatBoundary a) (and (ContinuantFiatBoundary a) (exists (b) (and (ZeroDimensionalSpatialRegion b) (forall (t) (locatedInAt a b t)))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [031-001]
zero-dimensional continuant fiat boundary
zero dimension continuant fiat boundaries are not spatial points. Considering the example 'the quadripoint where the boundaries of Colorado, Utah, New Mexico, and Arizona meet' : There are many frames in which that point is zooming through many points in space. Whereas, no matter what the frame, the quadripoint is always in the same relation to the boundaries of Colorado, Utah, New Mexico, and Arizona.
requested by Melanie Courtot
a zero-dimensional continuant fiat boundary is a fiat point whose location is defined in relation to some material entity. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [031-001])
(iff (ZeroDimensionalContinuantFiatBoundary a) (and (ContinuantFiatBoundary a) (exists (b) (and (ZeroDimensionalSpatialRegion b) (forall (t) (locatedInAt a b t)))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [031-001]
BFO:0000148
0d-t-region
ZeroDimensionalTemporalRegion
a temporal region that is occupied by a process boundary
right now
the moment at which a child is born
the moment at which a finger is detached in an industrial accident
the moment of death.
temporal instant.
A zero-dimensional temporal region is a temporal region that is without extent. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [102-001])
(forall (x) (if (ZeroDimensionalTemporalRegion x) (TemporalRegion x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [102-001]
zero-dimensional temporal region
A zero-dimensional temporal region is a temporal region that is without extent. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [102-001])
(forall (x) (if (ZeroDimensionalTemporalRegion x) (TemporalRegion x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [102-001]
BFO:0000182
history
History
A history is a process that is the sum of the totality of processes taking place in the spatiotemporal region occupied by a material entity or site, including processes on the surface of the entity or within the cavities to which it serves as host. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [138-001])
history
A history is a process that is the sum of the totality of processes taking place in the spatiotemporal region occupied by a material entity or site, including processes on the surface of the entity or within the cavities to which it serves as host. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [138-001])
IAO:0000003
measurement unit label
Examples of measurement unit labels are liters, inches, weight per volume.
A measurement unit label is as a label that is part of a scalar measurement datum and denotes a unit of measure.
2009-03-16: provenance: a term measurement unit was
proposed for OBI (OBI_0000176) , edited by Chris Stoeckert and
Cristian Cocos, and subsequently moved to IAO where the objective for
which the original term was defined was satisfied with the definition
of this, different, term.
2009-03-16: review of this term done during during the OBI workshop winter 2009 and the current definition was considered acceptable for use in OBI. If there is a need to modify this definition please notify OBI.
PERSON: Alan Ruttenberg
PERSON: Melanie Courtot
measurement unit label
IAO:0000009
datum label
A label is a symbol that is part of some other datum and is used to either partially define the denotation of that datum or to provide a means for identifying the datum as a member of the set of data with the same label
http://www.golovchenko.org/cgi-bin/wnsearch?q=label#4n
GROUP: IAO
9/22/11 BP: changed the rdfs:label for this class from 'label' to 'datum label' to convey that this class is not intended to cover all kinds of labels (stickers, radiolabels, etc.), and not even all kind of textual labels, but rather the kind of labels occuring in a datum.
datum label
IAO:0000027
data item
Data items include counts of things, analyte concentrations, and statistical summaries.
a data item is an information content entity that is intended to be a truthful statement about something (modulo, e.g., measurement precision or other systematic errors) and is constructed/acquired by a method which reliably tends to produce (approximately) truthful statements.
2/2/2009 Alan and Bjoern discussing FACS run output data. This is a data item because it is about the cell population. Each element records an event and is typically further composed a set of measurment data items that record the fluorescent intensity stimulated by one of the lasers.
2009-03-16: data item deliberatly ambiguous: we merged data set and datum to be one entity, not knowing how to define singular versus plural. So data item is more general than datum.
2009-03-16: removed datum as alternative term as datum specifically refers to singular form, and is thus not an exact synonym.
2014-03-31: See discussion at http://odontomachus.wordpress.com/2014/03/30/aboutness-objects-propositions/
JAR: datum -- well, this will be very tricky to define, but maybe some
information-like stuff that might be put into a computer and that is
meant, by someone, to denote and/or to be interpreted by some
process... I would include lists, tables, sentences... I think I might
defer to Barry, or to Brian Cantwell Smith
JAR: A data item is an approximately justified approximately true approximate belief
PERSON: Alan Ruttenberg
PERSON: Chris Stoeckert
PERSON: Jonathan Rees
data
data item
IAO:0000030
information content entity
Examples of information content entites include journal articles, data, graphical layouts, and graphs.
A generically dependent continuant that is about some thing.
2014-03-10: The use of "thing" is intended to be general enough to include universals and configurations (see https://groups.google.com/d/msg/information-ontology/GBxvYZCk1oc/-L6B5fSBBTQJ).
information_content_entity 'is_encoded_in' some digital_entity in obi before split (040907). information_content_entity 'is_encoded_in' some physical_document in obi before split (040907).
Previous. An information content entity is a non-realizable information entity that 'is encoded in' some digital or physical entity.
PERSON: Chris Stoeckert
OBI_0000142
information content entity
IAO:0000109
measurement datum
Examples of measurement data are the recoding of the weight of a mouse as {40,mass,"grams"}, the recording of an observation of the behavior of the mouse {,process,"agitated"}, the recording of the expression level of a gene as measured through the process of microarray experiment {3.4,luminosity,}.
A measurement datum is an information content entity that is a recording of the output of a measurement such as produced by a device.
2/2/2009 is_specified_output of some assay?
person:Chris Stoeckert
OBI_0000305
group:OBI
measurement datum
qudt:QuantityKind
qudt:QuantityValue
A <i>Quantity Value</i> expresses the magnitude and kind of a quantity and is given by the product of a numerical value <code>n</code> and a unit of measure <code>U</code>. The number multiplying the unit is referred to as the numerical value of the quantity expressed in that unit. Refer to <a href="http://physics.nist.gov/Pubs/SP811/sec07.html">NIST SP 811 section 7</a> for more on quantity values.
Quantity value
qudt:SystemOfUnits
A system of units is a set of units which are chosen as the reference scales for some set of quantity kinds together with the definitions of each unit. Units may be defined by experimental observation or by proportion to another unit not included in the system. If the unit system is explicitly associated with a quantity kind system, then the unit system must define at least one unit for each quantity kind.
System of Units
qudt:Unit
A unit of measure, or unit, is a particular quantity value that has been chosen as a scale for measuring other quantities the same kind (more generally of equivalent dimension). For example, the meter is a quantity of length that has been rigorously defined and standardized by the BIPM (International Board of Weights and Measures). Any measurement of the length can be expressed as a number multiplied by the unit meter. More formally, the value of a physical quantity Q with respect to a unit (U) is expressed as the scalar multiple of a real number (n) and U, as \(Q = nU\).
Unit
owl:Thing
1
time:Duration
Duration of a temporal extent expressed as a number scaled by a temporal unit
Time duration
Duration of a temporal extent expressed as a number scaled by a temporal unit
Alternative to time:DurationDescription to support description of a temporal duration other than using a calendar/clock system.
time:Instant
A temporal entity with zero extent or duration
Time instant
A temporal entity with zero extent or duration
time:Interval
A temporal entity with an extent or duration
Time interval
A temporal entity with an extent or duration
time:ProperInterval
A temporal entity with non-zero extent or duration, i.e. for which the value of the beginning and end are different
Proper interval
A temporal entity with non-zero extent or duration, i.e. for which the value of the beginning and end are different
time:TemporalDuration
Time extent; duration of a time interval separate from its particular start position
Temporal duration
Time extent; duration of a time interval separate from its particular start position
time:TemporalEntity
A temporal interval or instant.
Temporal entity
A temporal interval or instant.
time:TemporalUnit
sosa:FeatureOfInterest
The thing whose property is being estimated or calculated in the course of an Observation to arrive at a Result or whose property is being manipulated by an Actuator, or which is being sampled or transformed in an act of Sampling.
Feature Of Interest
The thing whose property is being estimated or calculated in the course of an Observation to arrive at a Result or whose property is being manipulated by an Actuator, or which is being sampled or transformed in an act of Sampling.
When measuring the height of a tree, the height is the observed ObservableProperty, 20m may be the Result of the Observation, and the tree is the FeatureOfInterest. A window is a FeatureOfInterest for an automatic window control Actuator.
sosa:Observation
Act of carrying out an (Observation) Procedure to estimate or calculate a value of a property of a FeatureOfInterest. Links to a Sensor to describe what made the Observation and how; links to an ObservableProperty to describe what the result is an estimate of, and to a FeatureOfInterest to detail what that property was associated with.
Observation
Act of carrying out an (Observation) Procedure to estimate or calculate a value of a property of a FeatureOfInterest. Links to a Sensor to describe what made the Observation and how; links to an ObservableProperty to describe what the result is an estimate of, and to a FeatureOfInterest to detail what that property was associated with.
The activity of estimating the intensity of an Earthquake using the Mercalli intensity scale is an Observation as is measuring the moment magnitude, i.e., the energy released by said earthquake.
sosa:Procedure
A workflow, protocol, plan, algorithm, or computational method specifying how to make an Observation, create a Sample, or make a change to the state of the world (via an Actuator). A Procedure is re-usable, and might be involved in many Observations, Samplings, or Actuations. It explains the steps to be carried out to arrive at reproducible results.
Procedure
A workflow, protocol, plan, algorithm, or computational method specifying how to make an Observation, create a Sample, or make a change to the state of the world (via an Actuator). A Procedure is re-usable, and might be involved in many Observations, Samplings, or Actuations. It explains the steps to be carried out to arrive at reproducible results.
The measured wind speed differs depending on the height of the sensor above the surface, e.g., due to friction. Consequently, procedures for measuring wind speed define a standard height for anemometers above ground, typically 10m for meteorological measures and 2m in Agrometeorology. This definition of height, sensor placement, and so forth are defined by the Procedure.
Many observations may be created via the same Procedure, the same way as many tables are assembled using the same instructions (as information objects, not their concrete realization).
sosa:Result
The Result of an Observation, Actuation, or act of Sampling. To store an observation's simple result value one can use the hasSimpleResult property.
Result
The Result of an Observation, Actuation, or act of Sampling. To store an observation's simple result value one can use the hasSimpleResult property.
The value 20 as the height of a certain tree together with the unit, e.g., Meter.
sosa:Sampler
A device that is used by, or implements, a Sampling Procedure to create or transform one or more samples.
Sampler
A device that is used by, or implements, a Sampling Procedure to create or transform one or more samples.
A ball mill, diamond drill, hammer, hypodermic syringe and needle, image Sensor or a soil auger can all act as sampling devices (i.e., be Samplers). However, sometimes the distinction between the Sampler and the Sensor is not evident, as they are packaged as a unit. A Sampler need not be a physical device.
sosa:Sampling
An act of Sampling carries out a sampling Procedure to create or transform one or more samples.
Sampling
An act of Sampling carries out a sampling Procedure to create or transform one or more samples.
Crushing a rock sample in a ball mill.
Digging a pit through a soil sequence.
Dividing a field site into quadrants.
Drawing blood from a patient.
Drilling an observation well.
Establishing a station for environmental monitoring.
Registering an image of the landscape.
Selecting a subset of a population.
Sieving a powder to separate the subset finer than 100-mesh.
Splitting a piece of drill-core to create two new samples.
Taking a diamond-drill core from a rock outcrop.
sosa:Sensor
Device, agent (including humans), or software (simulation) involved in, or implementing, a Procedure. Sensors respond to a stimulus, e.g., a change in the environment, or input data composed from the results of prior Observations, and generate a Result. Sensors can be hosted by Platforms.
Sensor
Device, agent (including humans), or software (simulation) involved in, or implementing, a Procedure. Sensors respond to a stimulus, e.g., a change in the environment, or input data composed from the results of prior Observations, and generate a Result. Sensors can be hosted by Platforms.
Accelerometers, gyroscopes, barometers, magnetometers, and so forth are Sensors that are typically mounted on a modern smart phone (which acts as Platform). Other examples of sensors include the human eyes.
ssn:Property
A quality of an entity. An aspect of an entity that is intrinsic to and cannot exist without the entity.
Property
A quality of an entity. An aspect of an entity that is intrinsic to and cannot exist without the entity.
http://opendata.inra.fr/PO2/
2.0
Person:Alan Ruttenberg
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
Joe Raad
Juliette Dibie
Liliana Ibanescu
Stephane Dervaux
2019-06-01
PO² - Process and Observation Ontology
2.0
To say that each spatiotemporal region s temporally_projects_onto some temporal region t is to say that t is the temporal extension of s. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [080-003])
To say that spatiotemporal region s spatially_projects_onto spatial region r at t is to say that r is the spatial extent of s at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [081-003])
To say that each spatiotemporal region s temporally_projects_onto some temporal region t is to say that t is the temporal extension of s. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [080-003])
To say that spatiotemporal region s spatially_projects_onto spatial region r at t is to say that r is the spatial extent of s at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [081-003])
This document is about information artifacts and their representations
is_about is a (currently) primitive relation that relates an information artifact to an entity.
7/6/2009 Alan Ruttenberg. Following discussion with Jonathan Rees, and introduction of "mentions" relation. Weaken the is_about relationship to be primitive.
We will try to build it back up by elaborating the various subproperties that are more precisely defined.
Some currently missing phenomena that should be considered "about" are predications - "The only person who knows the answer is sitting beside me" , Allegory, Satire, and other literary forms that can be topical without explicitly mentioning the topic.
person:Alan Ruttenberg
Smith, Ceusters, Ruttenberg, 2000 years of philosophy
is about