Yam trait Yam trait Pollinated florets number Pollinated florets number NpollF Quantity of Female Flowers which has been pollinated using male flower from a monoecious or dioecious parent Pollinated spikes number Quantity of Female spikes where flowers has been pollinated using male flower from a monoecious or dioecious parent NPollSpk Pollinated spikes number Fruit developed number Quantity of developed fruits per crosses Fruit developed number Nfrts FrtHvstN Fruits harvested number Number of harvested fruits per cross after physiological maturity Fruits harvested number Matured fruit Seed germination rate Seed germination rate A proportion of sown true (botanical) seed which germinate and produce seedling germRate Seedling Establishment rate sderat Establishment rate of seedlings Seedling Establishment rate Anthracnose severity caused by the pathogen Colletotricum gloeosporioides. The reaction of plants in a plot to anthracnose infestation (blight or leaf spot) under screenhouse or in the field under natural infestation or artificial inoculation Yam anthracnose disease severity YADS Yam anthracnose disease severity Tuber predominant shape Tuber shape TbrSh Tuber shape TbrSz Tuber size Tuber size Tuber size Canarc Canopy architecture Organisation or structural arrangements of branchs and leaves distribution giving a specific shape to the above ground part of the plant Canopy architecture TubDorm Tuber dormancy period Tuber dormancy period Tuber dormancy period Yam tuber dry rot incidence Dry rot caused by nematodes (Scutellonema bradys and Practylenchus spp.) in tubers at harvest Yam tuber dry rot incidence Dryrot Dryrot Dry rot caused by nematodes (Scutellonema bradys and Practylenchus spp.) in tubers at harvest Yam tuber dry rot severity Yam tuber dry rot severity Root knot nematode incidence Root knot incidence caused by Meloidogyne spp. RKNInc Root knot nematode incidence Root knot nematode severity Root knot nematode severity Root knot severity caused by Meloidogyne spp. RKNSev Number of seed tubers planted in a plot or unit area seed yam Tubers planted Tubers planted NTP Weight of seed tubers (whole seed yams or setts ) planted in a plot or per unit area. Planting material from a tuber is called sett. Seed tuber could be either small, healthy whole tuber or large tubers cut into pieces (sett) WTP Weight of planted tubers Weight of planted tubers Setts planted weight PVigor The vigour of the vine and leaves of the new plant. Plant Vigor Plant Vigor SprtCol Color of the sprout (vine and leaves). Sprout color Sprout color PPE Proportion of plants /sprouts emerged in a plot Proportion of emerged plants ratio of emerged plants or sprouts Proportion of emerged plants Proportion of established plants Plant establishement ratio Proportion of established plants Proportion of plants in a plot well established (plantsgrowing with good vigour and without severe constraints) STRATE Nstem Stems per plant Stems per plant Number of stems (vines) with leaves and branches per plant Yam anthracnose disease incidence Yam anthracnose disease incidence YADI Anthracnose incidence caused by the pathogen Colletotricum gloeosporioides. % of anthracnose ���blight��� or ''leaf spot''affected plants in a plot Reaction of the total plants per plot to the virus infection, producing yellow mottle, mosaic and leaves deformation VirusInc Virus incidence Virus incidence Virus severity Grade of reaction of the plant to the viruses infection, varying from mottle, mosaics until total leaves deformation Virus severity VirusSev SecSP Emergence of secondary sprouts on a plant Secondary sprouting Secondary sprouting Time of the first flower initiation on a plant/s in a plot or any of the plants in a plot shows the first flower Time to flower initiation Time to flower initiation TIMFlrin Predominat plant or flower sex Sex flower sex Plant sex Plant sex Flrint Abundance or degree of flowering Flowering intensity Flowering intensity Intensity or proportion of fruit set or development under open or controlled pollination. NFrtSet Fruit set number Fruit set number Presence of bulbil Presence of bulbils or aerial tubers in the nodes of the vines Bulbil Aerial tuber formation Presence of bulbil Time to bulbil initiation Aerial tuber initiation time Time to bulbil initiation TIMbulb Bulbil initiation time Time to all plants in a plot or unit area show full or complete foliage senescence TIMfsen Foliage senescence time Foliage senescence time Times to complete senescence Bulbp Number of bulbil Number of aerial tuber Number of bulbil Number of bulbils or aerial tubers produced Aerial tuber yield Bulbyld Bulbil yield Bulbil yield Yield of vine bulbils or aerial tubers harvest Stand harvested number Stand harvested number Number of plants harvested NPH Total tubers per plot Number of total (all size) tubers in a net plot or unit area Total tubers per plot TNTP TTYNA Total tuber yield nonadjusted tons per hectare Total tuber yield Total tuber yield Big size yam yield Big size yam yield Big size tubers yield nonadjusted tons per hectare BTYld Number of rotten and/or rotten yam tubers in a net plot or unit area NRDT Rotten or diseased tubers per plot Rotten or diseased tubers per plot Tbrtxtur Tuber surface texture Tuber surface texture Tuber surface smoothness Tuber spineness Thorn Tuber thorniness Exsistence of thorns on the tuber surface Tuber thorniness Tbrfclr The surface color of the yam tuber flesh Tuber flesh color Tuber flesh color Tuber flesh oxidation Tuber flesh enzymatic oxidation rate Tuber flesh oxidation Tfoxd Leaf beetle damage incidence Incidence of leaf beetle damage. Leaf beetle damage incidence Lfbtinc Leaf beetle damage severity Lfbtsev Severity of leaf beetle damage. Leaf beetle damage severity Incidence of mealybug tuber infestation. MbugInc Mealybug tuber infestation incidence Mealybug tuber infestation incidence Mealybug tuber infestation severity Mealybug tuber infestation severity MbugSev Severity of mealybug tuber infestation. Tuber beetle incidence Tuber beetle incidence Tubtlinc Incidence of tuber beetle damage. Tuber beetle severity Tuber beetle severity Severity of tuber beetle damage. Tubtlsev Tuber dry matter content Proportion of dry matter in the tuber. Tuber dry matter content TubDMC SdSet Number of seeds developed per fruit after hand flowers pollination Seeds set per fruit Seeds set per fruit Presence of secondary roots on the tuber bark Tuber hairiness Tuber hairiness RTBS Tuber appearance Tuber appearance Tuber surface look in relation to presence or absence of roots, thorns and sprouted buds on the tuber surface Tbrappr Stickiness of pounded yam StickPndedYam The degree to which the pounded yam is adhesive or stick to the fingure, mouth surface and teeth Stickiness of pounded yam TastePndedYam Taste of pounded yam when eaten without any additional complementary food Taste of pounded yam Taste of pounded yam Tubers planted counting/plot Tubers planted counting/plot Sett-N SETW Weight of planted tubers computation/ gm Weight of planted tubers computation/ gm Time to the first sprout (plant) emerge in a plot TIMFSE First sprout emergence time First sprout emergence time First sprout emergence time estimation in yy/mm/dd First sprout emergence time estimation in yy/mm/dd Emerdt Time to 50% sprouts (plants) emerge in a plot 50% sprout emergence time TIMSE 50% sprout emergence time DtFemer 50% sprout emergence time estimation in yy/mm/dd 50% sprout emergence time estimation in yy/mm/dd First sprout emergence time computation in days Emerday First sprout emergence time computation in days 50% sprout emergence time computation in days DyFemer 50% sprout emergence time computation in days Number of an emerged plants (sprouts) in a plot NEP Number of emerged plants Number of emerged plants Emerged plants counting/plot Emerged plants counting/plot Proportion of emerged plants (sprouts) computation/% Proportion of emerged plants (sprouts) computation/% Ratiosp Number of well established plants ( plants growing with good vigour and without severe constraints) in a plot Established plants NESP Established plants Established plants counting/plot Established plants counting/plot Estbp-N Field establishment rate compuation in % Field establishment rate compuation in % Estbp-ratio Secondary sprouting estimation nominal 0&1 SECSP Secondary sprouting estimation nominal 0&1 Sprout color estimation 1-5 Sprout color estimation 1-5 SPCOLO Sprout length Spleng Sprout length Length of sprouted shoots (vines) Sprout length measurement in cm SPRTL Sprout length measurement in cm Presence of colored spots at the spine base of sprouted shoots (vine) with spines Presence of spot on spine base Presence of spot on spine base SPBCOL Spine base color estimation nominal 0&1 Spine base color estimation nominal 0&1 Spines on sprout presence Spines on sprout presence SPNSP Presence of spines on sprout (vines) Spines on sprout presence estimation nominal 0&1 Spines on sprout presence estimation nominal 0&1 Sprout hairiness HAIRSP Hairs on sprout (vines) Sprout hairiness Sprout hairiness estimation nominal 0&2 Sprout hairiness estimation nominal 0&2 Time to the first leaf emergence on a plant or sprouted shoot (vine) in a plot Time to first leaf emergence Time to first leaf emergence TIMLE First leaf emergence time estimation in yy/mm/dd First leaf emergence time estimation in yy/mm/dd Time to first leaf emergence computation Time to first leaf emergence computation Leaf apex shape Leaf apex shape Leaf apex shape Lfapx Leaf apex shape estimation 1-3 Leaf apex shape estimation 1-3 Leaf shape of plants Leaf shape Leaf shape Lfshp Leaf shape estimation 1-7 Leaf shape estimation 1-7 Stems per plant computation per plant Stems per plant computation per plant stnp Stem diameter of a mature plant (5 to 6 month old plant) Stem diameter Stem diameter STMDM stemdim Stem diameter computation in mm Stem diameter computation in mm Internode length Internode length Internode length Intndlngth Internode length computation in cm Internode length computation in cm INODL Number of internodes to first branching Number of internodes to first branchs on a plant NINFB Number of internodes to first branching Number of internodes to first branching computation/plot Number of internodes to first branching computation/plot Spines on stem density Spines on stem density SPNAB Intensity of spines on stem (vine) above base of mature plant (5 to 6 month old plant) Spines on stem estimation 0-2 Spines on stem estimation 0-2 A tendency of a plant to grow in a certain shape and to attain a certain mature height and spread Plant type Plntype Plant type Growth habit GH Plant type estimation 1-3 Plant type estimation 1-3 Canopy architecture estimation 1-4 Canopy architecture estimation 1-4 Canopy Plant vigor estimation 1-3 Plant vigor estimation 1-3 PLNV Twining habit TWNH Tendency of climbing or trailling Twining habit climbing habit trailling Twining habit estimation 0-1 Twining habit estimation 0-1 TWNH twndir Twining direction Twining direction Twining direction vine climbing direction Twining direction estimation 1-2 Twining direction estimation 1-2 Flower initiation time estimation in yy/mm/dd Flower initiation time estimation in yy/mm/dd DtFlrin Time to 50% flowering Time to 50% flowering TIMFL Time when 50% of the plants flower in a plot Flowering time estimation in yy/mm/dd DtFFlr Flowering time estimation in yy/mm/dd TIMEF Time to end of flowering End of flowering time or when a plant does not produce new flower in a plot Time to end of flowering DtendFlr End of flowering time estimation in yy/mm/dd End of flowering time estimation in yy/mm/dd Fower initiation time computation in days Fower initiation time computation in days Dayflrin Flowering time computation in days Flowering time computation in days DF Dayendflr End of flowering time computation in days End of flowering time computation in days Date crossing or pollination attempted Crossing date datcross Crossing date Crossing date esimation in yy/mm/dd Polldate Crossing date esimation in yy/mm/dd Pollinated florets counting Pollinated florets counting NPOLS Pollinated spikes counting Pollinated spikes counting FLRI Flowering intensity estimation 0-9 Flowering intensity estimation 0-9 Inflorescence initiation time Inflorescence initiation time TIMinflor Time of first inflorescence initiation First inflorescence initiation time estimation in yy/mm/dd First inflorescence initiation time estimation in yy/mm/dd First inflorescence initiation time computation First inflorescence initiation time computation Inflorescence type Inflorescence type Inft The arrangement of flowers on stem or twig of a plant Inflorescence type estimation Inflorescence type estimation fflrint femal flower abudance per inflorence Intensity or abudance of female flowers on spikes/infloresences Female flowering intensity Female flowering intensity Female flowering intensity per spike estimation 1-4 Female flowering intensity per spike estimation 1-4 fflrab Mode of plant to plant pollen transfer Mechanism of pollination Polltyp Pollination type Pollination type Pollination type estimation 1-4 Pollmech Pollination type estimation 1-4 Plant sex estimation 0-4 Plant sex estimation 0-4 plntsex flrsex Fruits developed per cross counting Fruits developed per cross counting FrtN fruit formation time Frtset Times fruit formation or set on monoeciuse or femal flowers of dioeciouse yam plants Time to fruit setting Time to fruit setting Fruit setting time estimation in yy/mm/dd Fruit setting time estimation in yy/mm/dd Fruit setting estimation 0&1 Fruit setting estimation 0&1 frtform Fruits harvested per cross counting Fruits harvested per cross counting Matfrt Time of fruit harvesting Time to fruit harvesting Time to fruit harvesting DateFH Fruit harvest time estimation in yy/mm/dd Fruit harvest time estimation in yy/mm/dd TIMFrtM Time to fruit maturity Time to fruit maturity Times 90% of fruits attain physiological maturity Fruit maturity time estimation in yy/mm/dd Fruit maturity time estimation in yy/mm/dd Times to fruit maturity computation in days DFM Times to fruit maturity computation in days Fruit set number estimation 1-3 FRTINT Fruit set number estimation 1-3 fruit set number percentage fruit set number percentage Status of fruit development FrtDev Fruit development status on monoecious and female flower of dioeciouse yam plant Status of fruit development Fruit development status estimation 1-2 Fruit development status estimation 1-2 Seeds set/fruit computation Seeds set/fruit computation True seeds harvested bontanical seed Number of true seed harvested or obained per cross or family True seeds harvested Tsdh True seeds harvested/cross counting True seeds harvested/cross counting Botseed Fruit index Fruit index Fruit index is an estimation of pollinated flowers developing physiologically mature fruits Fruit index computation 0 to 1 Fruit index computation 0 to 1 Seed index Seed index Seed index is an estimation of pollinated flowers producing seeds Seed index computation 0 to 1 Seed index computation 0 to 1 Quantity of botanical or true seeds sown per family or cross Seeds sown Sdsown Seeds sown Seeds sown/family counting Seeds sown/family counting Time the first seed germination occurred Date sart of seed germination Seeds germination start time Seeds germination start time germstart Seeds germination start time estimation in yy/mm/dd Seeds germination start time estimation in yy/mm/dd DAFGR Seeds germination end time Time last seed germination occurred Date end of seed germination germend Seeds germination end time DAEGR End of seeds germination time estiamtion in yy/mm/dd End of seeds germination time estiamtion in yy/mm/dd GR Seed germination rate percentage Seed germination rate percentage Quanity of sown true (botanical) seeds germinated per cross or family sdgerm Seeds germinated Seeds germinated Seeds germinated counting Seeds germinated counting sder Seedling establishment rate percentage Seedling establishment rate percentage Establishment rate of seedlings four weeks after transplanting operation Tsurvrat Seedling transplant survival rate Seedling transplant survival rate Seedling survival rate percentage Seedling survival rate percentage Vine cuttings planted Vine cuttings planted Vine cuttings planted NVP Vine cuttings planted count Vine cuttings planted count Vine cutting establishment rate Vine cutting establishment rate Proportion of vine cuttings established well that producing shoots Vestrat Vine cutting establishment rate percentage Vine cutting establishment rate percentage Datsen Time when 50% of the plants in a plot are showing signs of foliage senescence Time to 50% foliage senescence Time to 50% foliage senescence Partial senescence time Time to 50% foliage senescence estimation in yy/mm/dd Time to 50% foliage senescence estimation in yy/mm/dd DATS Foliage senescence time Datfsen Complete senescence time Foliage senescence time Time to all plants in a plot or unit area show full or complete foliage senescence DateHS Foliage senescence time estimation in yy/mm/dd Foliage senescence time estimation in yy/mm/dd Time to 50% foliage senescence computation in days Time to 50% foliage senescence computation in days DM Foliage senescence time computation in days DAYHS Foliage senescence time computation in days Mat Time to maturity Time to maturity Growing degree days Length of time toward crop maturity Maturity time estimation GGD Maturity time estimation GGD Foliage senescence or maturity class Senescenece class Maturity class SE Senescenece class Senescence class estimation 1-9 Senescence class estimation 1-9 MatC Dry rot caused by nematodes (Scutellonema bradys and Practylenchus spp.) in tubers at harvest Yam tuber dry rot presence Yam tuber dry rot presence Dryrot Presence of tuber dry rot estimation in 0&1 Presence of tuber dry rot estimation in 0&1 Yam tuber dry rot incidence Yam tuber dry rot incidence Dryrot Dry rot caused by nematodes (Scutellonema bradys and Practylenchus spp.) in tubers at harvest Number of dry rot tubers count Number of dry rot tubers count S_Bri Tuber dry rot incidence computation in % Tuber dry rot incidence computation in % S_Brs Tuber dry rot severity estimation 0-4 Tuber dry rot severity estimation 0-4 Btl_I Leaf beetle damage incidence computation % Leaf beetle damage incidence computation % Btl_S Leaf beetle damage severity estimation in 1-5 Leaf beetle damage severity estimation in 1-5 M_Bi Mealybug incidence computation % Mealybug incidence computation % Mealybug severity estimation in 1-5 Mealybug severity estimation in 1-5 M_Bs R_Kni Root knot nematode incidence computation % Root knot nematode incidence computation % Root knot nematode severity estimation in 1-5 Root knot nematode severity estimation in 1-5 R_kns Tbeti Tuber beetle incidence computation % Tuber beetle incidence computation % Tbets Tuber beetle severity estimation in 1-5 Tuber beetle severity estimation in 1-5 Virus incidence computation % VRSI Virus incidence computation % virus severity estimation in 1-5 virus severity estimation in 1-5 VRSS AnthracInc yam anthracnose disease incidence computation % yam anthracnose disease incidence computation % AnthracSev yam anthracnose disease severity estimation in 1-5 yam anthracnose disease severity estimation in 1-5 Bulbils per plot count Bulbils per plot count Aetbrp Number of bulbils or aerial tubers produced Number of bulbil Bulbpl Number of bulbil Number of aerial tuber Bulbils per plant computation Bulbils per plant computation Aetbrpl Bulbil shape Aerial tuber shape Bulbsp Bulbil shape Predominant shape of the bulbils Aetbrshap Shape of bulbil estimation 1-4 Shape of bulbil estimation 1-4 Bulbil weight Aerial tuber weight Weight of vine bulbils or aerial tubers harvest Bulbil weight Bulbwtp Bulbil weight per plot measurement in kg Aetubwtp Bulbil weight per plot measurement in kg AetbrwtPl Bulbil yield per plant measurement in kg Bulbil yield per plant measurement in kg AetbrYld Bulbil yield estimation in t/ha Bulbil yield estimation in t/ha Bulbil initiation time estimation in yy/mm/dd Bulbil initiation time estimation in yy/mm/dd Aetbrin Times to bulbil initiation computation Times to bulbil initiation computation Dayaetbrin Bulbil presence estimation 0&1 AeTuber Bulbil presence estimation 0&1 Plant stand harvested count No_stdh Plant stand harvested count NBTP Number of big size tubers that weighing ���1 kg in a net plot or unit area Tubers per plot size 1 Big size tubers per plot Big size tubers per plot Big tubers per plot counting number Big tubers per plot counting number NMTP Medium size tubers per plot Medium size tubers per plot Tubers per plot size 2 Number of medium size tubers that weighing ��� 0.5kg and <1 kg in a net plot or unit area Medium tubers per plot counting number Medium tubers per plot counting number Tubers per plot size 3 Small size tubers per plot Small size tubers per plot Number of small size tubers that weighing <0.5kg in a net plot or unit area NSTP Small tubers per plot counting number Small tubers per plot counting number Rotten tubers per plot counting number NRDT Rotten tubers per plot counting number Total tubers per plot computation Total tubers per plot computation Big size tubers per plant NBTPL Big size tubers per plant Number of big size tubers ( ���1 kg) per plant Big tubers per plant computation Big tubers per plant computation Medium size tubers per plant Number of medium size tubers (��� 0.5kg and <1 kg) per plant NMTPL Medium size tubers per plant Medium tubers per plant computation Medium tubers per plant computation NSTPL Number of small size tubers ( <0.5kg) per plant Small size tubers per plant Small size tubers per plant Small tubers per plant compuatation Small tubers per plant compuatation Number of tubers harvested per plant TNTPL Total tubers per plant Total tubers per plant Total tubers per plant computation Total tubers per plant computation BTW Weight of big size tubers ( ���1 kg) in a net plot or unit area Big size tubers weight per plot Big size tubers weight per plot Weight of big tubers per plot measurement in kg Weight of big tubers per plot measurement in kg Btbrwt Medium size tubers weight per plot Weight of medium size tubers (��� 0.5kg and <1 kg) in a net plot or unit area Medium size tubers weight per plot MTW Mtbrwt Weight medium tubers per plot measurement in kg Weight medium tubers per plot measurement in kg STW Small size tubers weight per plot Small size tubers weight per plot Weight of small size tubers ( <0.5kg ) in a net plot or unit area Stbrwt Weight of small tubers per plot measurement in kg Weight of small tubers per plot measurement in kg Weight of rotten/diseased tubers per plot measurement in kg Weight of rotten/diseased tubers per plot measurement in kg Rot_Wt Total fresh tuber weight per plot TTWP Total fresh tuber weight per plot Total fresh weight of all category or size tubers harvested in a net plot Total tuber weight per plot computation in kg Total tuber weight per plot computation in kg Total tuber weight per plant TTWPL Total tuber weight per plant Total fresh weight of all category or size tubers per plant Total tuber weight per plant computation in kg Total tuber weight per plant computation in kg Big size tuber weight per plant Weight of big size tubers per plant Big size tuber weight per plant WBTPL Weight of big tubers per plant measurement in kg MTWPL Weight of big tubers per plant measurement in kg Weight of medium size tuber yam per plant Medium size tuber weight per plant WMTPL Medium size tuber weight per plant Weight of medium tubers per plant computation kgplt Weight of medium tubers per plant computation kgplt Small size tuber weight per plant Weight of small size yam per plant Small size tuber weight per plant WSTPL Weight of small tuber per plant computation kgplant Weight of small tuber per plant computation kgplant TubYld Total tuber yield computation in t/ha Total tuber yield computation in t/ha Big tuber yield computation in t/ha Big tuber yield computation in t/ha Total tuber yield adjusted Total tuber yield adjusted TTYA Total tuber yield adjusted tons per hectare Tuber yield adjusted computation in t/ha Tuber yield adjusted computation in t/ha BTYA Big size tuber yield adjusted Big size tubers yield adjusted tons per hectare Big size tuber yield adjusted Big tuber yield adjusted computation in t/ha Big tuber yield adjusted computation in t/ha Average weigth of big size tuber Average weigth of big size tuber AWBT Average weight of big size tubers in kg Big tuber average weight computation in kg Big tuber average weight computation in kg ATW Average tuber weight Average tuber weight Average tuber weight in kg Average tuber weight computation in kg Average tuber weight computation in kg Position of appearance of roots at surface of tubers Prtbs Place of roots on tubers Place of roots on tubers Root position estimation 1-4 Root position estimation 1-4 Hairiness of tuber estimation 1-3 Hairiness of tuber estimation 1-3 TBR_Hairy Appearance of tuber surface estimation 1-4 Appearance of tuber surface estimation 1-4 Tuber surface texture estimation 1-2 Tuber surface texture estimation 1-2 Thorn Tuber thorniness estimation 0&1 Tuber thorniness estimation 0&1 Tuber thorniness intensity Spine intensity on tubers Tuber thorniness intensity ThornInt Intensity of thorns on the tuber surface Tuber thorniness intensity estimation 0-7 Tuber thorniness intensity estimation 0-7 Btbrleng Average length of big size tubers harvested in a net plot or unit area Big size tuber length Big size tuber length Big tuber length computation in cm Big tuber length computation in cm Average length of medium size tubers harvested in a net plot or unit area Mtbrleng Medium size tuber length Medium size tuber length Medium size tuber length computation in cm Medium size tuber length computation in cm Small size tuber length Small size tuber length Average length of small size tubers harvested in a net plot or unit area Stbrleng Small size tuber length computation in cm Small size tuber length computation in cm Average length of all size tubers harvested in a net plot or unit area Tbrleng Tuber length Tuber length TBRL Average tuber length measurement in cm Average tuber length measurement in cm Tuber shape estimation 1-4 TUBSHA Tuber shape estimation 1-4 TUBSIZE Tuber size estimation 1-3 Tuber size estimation 1-3 Big size tuber width Average width of big size tubers harvested in a net plot or unit area Big size tuber width Btbrwd Big tuber width computation in cm Big tuber width computation in cm Btbrwidth Average width of medium size tubers harvested in a net plot or unit area Mtbrwd Medium size tuber width Medium size tuber width Mtbrwidth Medium tuber width computation in cm Medium tuber width computation in cm Small size tuber width Stbrwd Small size tuber width Average width of small size tubers harvested in a net plot or unit area Small tuber width computation in cm Stbrwidth Small tuber width computation in cm Tuber width Tuber width Tbrwd Average width of all size tubers harvested in a net plot or unit area Average tuber width computation in cm tbrwidth Average tuber width computation in cm Cracks on tuber surface Tuber cracks Tuber cracks CTBRS Tuber surface crack estimation 0-3 Tuber surface crack estimation 0-3 Crazy roots presence CRZROOT Crazy roots presence Appearance of crazy roots on tuber surface Crazy roots presence estimation 0&1 Crazy roots presence estimation 0&1 corm Presence or absence of corm on tuber Corm on tuber Corm on tuber Corm estimation binary 0&1 Corm estimation binary 0&1 corsep Corm separability from tuber Corm separability from tuber Corm separation from tuber Separability of corm estimation binary 0&1 Separability of corm estimation binary 0&1 cormsep Corm size Size of corm in relation to tuber corsz Corm size Cormsize Corm size estimation 1-3 Corm size estimation 1-3 Corm type Corm type Corm type cortyp Corm type estimation 1-3 Cormtype Corm type estimation 1-3 Dorm Tuber dormancy period estimation Tuber dormancy period estimation TDMC Dry matter content percentage Dry matter content percentage Tuber flesh color upper portion estimation 1-9 Tuber flesh color upper portion estimation 1-9 Flcolr_head Tuber flesh color middle portion estimation 1-9 Flcolr_middle Tuber flesh color middle portion estimation 1-9 Tuber flesh color lower portion estimation 1-9 Tuber flesh color lower portion estimation 1-9 Flcolr_tail Tbrflcolr Tuber flesh color measurement Tuber flesh color measurement Tuber flesh cross-section color uniformity Tuber flesh cross-section color uniformity Utfc Uniformity of tuber flesh surface color in cross-section ( from cortex to center) Uniformity of tuber flesh color estimation binary 0&1 Uniformity of tuber flesh color estimation binary 0&1 flcol_uni Intoxd Tuber flesh oxidation intensity Tuber flesh oxidation intensity Intensity of tuber flesh enzymatic oxidation (degree of flesh color change or browning of cut yam tuber) Intensity of tuber flesh oxidation estimation 0-3 Intensity of tuber flesh oxidation estimation 0-3 Tuber flesh texture Texture of tuber flesh Tuber flesh texture Txf Tuber flesh texture estimation 1-3 Tuber flesh texture estimation 1-3 Tuber oxidation estimation 1-3 Oxid Tuber oxidation estimation 1-3 Surface color resulting of tuber flesh enzymatic oxidation Tuber flesh oxidation color Tuber flesh oxidation color Foxdc Flesh oxidation color estimation 1-4 Flesh oxidation color estimation 1-4 Cohesiveness of pounded yam cohpdym Cohesiveness of pounded yam Degree to which particles of a sample stick together or how moldable it is Cohesiveness estimation 1-3 Cohesiveness estimation 1-3 tretchability or elasticity of pounded yam Distance to which the deformed material can be sretchable sprgpdym Springiness of pounded yam Springiness of pounded yam Strepdym Springness estimation 1-2 Springness estimation 1-2 Smoothness of pounded yam Smoothness of pounded yam smthpdym Smoothnessof the material, i.e., absence of lumps Smoothness estimation 1-3 Smoothness estimation 1-3 Fibrousness of pounded yam Fibrousness of pounded yam fbrpdym Presenceof ���ber strands Fiber estimation 1-2 Fiber estimation 1-2 Stickiness estimation 1-3 Con_Stick_PY Stickiness estimation 1-3 Con_Taste_PY Taste estimation 1-5 Taste estimation 1-5 Scalisec Scale insect infestation on tubers at harvest Scale insect infestation Scale insect infestation Scale insect infestation estimation 0-2 Scale insect infestation estimation 0-2 Stmcol The surface color of stem Stem color Stem color Stem color estimatiion 1-5 Stem color estimatiion 1-5 Variation in leaf mass of the plant Leaf density Leaf density Lfden leaf abundance Leaf density estimation 1-7 Leaf density estimation 1-7 Number of branches above ground Branch number Branch number branch Number of branches per plant count Number of branches per plant count vine length Stem height Height or the length of stem Stem height Stmht Stem height measurement in m Stem height measurement in m Nlfyp The number of leaves on a plant Number of leaves Number of leaves Number of leaves per plant count Number of leaves per plant count leaf arrangement Leaf position Arrangement of leaves on stem or vine Leaf position lfpst Leaf position estiamtion 1-3 Leaf position estiamtion 1-3 Leaf length Length of leaf Leaf length lflngth Leaf length measurement in cm Leaf length measurement in cm Leaf Width Width of leaf lfwdt Leaf Width Leaf width measurement in cm Leaf width measurement in cm Internode length measurement in cm Internode length measurement in cm Hairiness of stem Stem hairiness Stem hairiness stmhair Stem hairiness estimation 0-2 Stem hairiness estimation 0-2 The leaf surface color or pigmentation mlfcol leaf color leaf color Young leaf color estimation 1-5 Young leaf color estimation 1-5 Mature leaf color estimation 1-5 Mature leaf color estimation 1-5 lveincol Vein color Color or pigmentation of leaf vein Vein color Upper surface vein color estimation 1-4 Upper surface vein color estimation 1-4 Lower surface vein color estimation 1-4 Lower surface vein color estimation 1-4 Leaf hairiness Leaf hairiness llfhair Hairiness of leaf surface Upper surface leaf hairiness estimation 0-2 Upper surface leaf hairiness estimation 0-2 Lower surface leaf hairiness estimation 0-2 Lower surface leaf hairiness estimation 0-2 Petiole length Length of petiole Petiole length petlngth Petiole length measurement in cm Petiole length measurement in cm Tubers (seed yams or setts) planted - Counting Tubers (seed yams or setts) planted - Counting Count the number of tubers (seed yams or setts) planted per plot (unit area) Setts or seed yams planted weight - Computation Setts or seed yams planted weight - Computation Measure the weight of N planted tubers (seed yams or setts) and record the average Time first sprout emergence-Estimation Record date of first spout emergence in a plot Time first sprout emergence-Estimation Record date 50% of sprouts in a plot emerged Time 50% of sprout emergence-Estimation Time 50% of sprout emergence-Estimation Times to first sprout emergence-Computation Times to first sprout emergence-Computation Compute the number of days required from date of planting to the date first sprout or plant in a plot or unit area emerged Times to 50% spout emergence-Computation Times to 50% spout emergence-Computation Compute the number of days required from date of planting to the date 50% of sprouts or plants in a plot emerged Emerged sprouts -Counting Count the emerged plants (sprouts) per plot every week starting from first plant/sprout emergence date till the last plant or spourt emerge in a plot Emerged sprouts -Counting Emerged sprouts or plants proportion-Computation Compute the proportion or ratio of plants/sprouts emerged as the number of emerged plants/sprouts divided by the total number of tubers (seed yam or setts) planted in a plot multiplied by 100 Emerged sprouts or plants proportion-Computation Take count of well established plants in a plot usually at two months after planting Number of well established plants -Counting Number of well established plants -Counting Compute the proportion or ratio of well-established plants in a plot from the total number of tubers (seed yam or setts) planted Field establishment-Computation Field establishment-Computation Secondary sprouting - estimation Secondary sprouting - estimation Record emergence of new secondary sprouts from the planted seed tuber/sett in a plot at three months after planting Record the predominant color of the sprouts (plant) per plot at 20 days after emergence Sprout color - estimation Sprout color - estimation Sprout length-computation Sprout length-computation Compute the average sprout length of five representative plants measurement taken in a plot Record of the existance of colored spot at base of spines on a sprout (vine) Colored spots on spine base-Estimation Colored spots on spine base-Estimation Spines on sprout base-estimation Spines on sprout base-estimation Record absence or presence of spines on a sprout (vine) Hairiness of sprout - Estimation Record existance of hairs on a sprout (vine) Hairiness of sprout - Estimation Time of first leaf emergence on sprouted shoot (vines)-Estimation Time of first leaf emergence on sprouted shoot (vines)-Estimation Record time of the first leaf emergence on sprouted shoot (vine) Times to the first leaf emergence on sprouted shoot (vines)-Computation Compute the number of days required from first sprout emergence to the first leaf to emerge on a sprouted shoot (vine) in a plot Times to the first leaf emergence on sprouted shoot (vines)-Computation Leaf apex shape-Estimation Leaf apex shape-Estimation Record leaf apex shape of mature plants in a plot Leaf shape-Estimation Leaf shape-Estimation Record leaf shape of mature plants in a plot Number of stems per plant-computation Number of stems per plant-computation Compute average of the number of stems (vines) per established plants in a plot Stem diameter-computation Measure the stem diameter at 15 cm above the base of five plants before senescence in a plot and record the average Stem diameter-computation Measure the internode length of five plants before senescence at 1 meter height and record the average Internode length -computation Internode length -computation Number of internode-computation Compute average number of internodes to first branching of at least five plants internode counts taken in a plot Number of internode-computation Visual assessment of spines on a stem (vine) above the base of mature plants in a plot Density of spines on stem base of a plant-Etimation Density of spines on stem base of a plant-Etimation Visual assessment of the tendency of a plant to grow in a certain shape and to attain mature height and spread Plant type-Estimation Plant type-Estimation Canopy architecture - Estimation Canopy architecture - Estimation Determination of predominant canopy architecture Plant Vigor - Estimation Plant Vigor - Estimation Visual assessment of the plant vigour in a plot at two month after planting Twining habit-Estimation Record the tendency of vine to twine or climb Twining habit-Estimation Twining direction-Estimation Twining direction-Estimation Record the twining or climbing direction of the vine Record time (date) of first flower initiation in a plot or the date any of the plants in a plot shows the first flower Flower initaition time - Estimation Flower initaition time - Estimation Record time (date) 50% plants in a plot are having at least one flower/inflorescence 50% flowering time - Estimation 50% flowering time - Estimation End of flowering time - Estimation End of flowering time - Estimation Record time (date) when the plant does not produce more new flowers in a plot Flower initaition time - Computation Flower initaition time - Computation Computing the number of days required from first sprout emergence to first flower initiation 50% flowering time - Computation Compute the number of days required from 50% of sprouts in plot emerged to 50% of plants in a plot are having at least one flower/inflorescence 50% flowering time - Computation End of flowering time - Computation Computing the number of days required from 50% of sprout emergence to when plant does not produce more new flowers. End of flowering time - Computation Date crossing-Estimation Record the date crossing made in particular flower of a plant. Date crossing-Estimation Count the number of pollinated florets per female parent per cross Floret pollinated number - Counting Floret pollinated number - Counting Count the number of pollinated spikes per female parent per cross Pollinated spike number - Estimation Pollinated spike number - Estimation Flowering intensity - Estimation Record the abundance or intesity of flowering when more than 50% of the plants are flowered in a plot Flowering intensity - Estimation First inflorescence time - Estimation First inflorescence time - Estimation Record date when plant/s having the first inflorescence in a plot First inflorescence time - Compuation Compute the number of days required to first inflorescence emergence in a plot First inflorescence time - Compuation Inflorescence type-Estimation Inflorescence type-Estimation Observe the type of inflorescence and score it Femal flowers abundance or intensity per inflorescence-Estimation Observe the femal flowering intensity or abudance per inflorences and rate Femal flowers abundance or intensity per inflorescence-Estimation pollination type-Estimation Record the method used to transfer the pollen grains from the anther of a flower to the stigma of a flower of the same or different plant of the same species pollination type-Estimation Plant or flower sex-Estimation Scoring the most frequent flower sex type when more than 50% of the plants are flowered Plant or flower sex-Estimation Fruits developed number - Counting Fruits developed number - Counting Record the number of developed fruits or fruit set in pollinated flowers/inflorescence 50% fruit set time-Estimation Record the date fruit set in 50% of plants in a plot 50% fruit set time-Estimation Ability to set or form fruts-Estimation Observe fruit setting or formation of female flowers of monoeciouse and dieciouse plants and rate the ability set for form fruits Ability to set or form fruts-Estimation Record the number of harvested fruits per cross Fruits harvested number - Counting Fruits harvested number - Counting Record the date of fruits harvest in a crossing block or from plant Fruit harvesting time- Estimation Fruit harvesting time- Estimation Fruit maturity time - Estimation Record the date 90% of the developed fruits shows sign of physiological maturity (turning brown) Fruit maturity time - Estimation Fruit maturity time - Computation Fruit maturity time - Computation Compute the number of days required from fruit set to fruit phyisological maturity Assess the fruit number as fruiting intensity in categorical scale when more than 50% of the plants set fruits Fruit set number - Estimation Fruit set number - Estimation Compute the fruit set number as proportion of pollinated flowers developing or setting a fruit and expressed in % Fruit set number - Computation Fruit set number - Computation Fruit development intensity-Estimation Fruit development intensity-Estimation Score the degree of fruit development in scale Seeds set - Comp Take count of the number of seeds set on each fruits and record the average seeds per fruit Seeds set - Comp Record the total number of true seed or botanical seed harvested or obtained per cross or family Quantity of true seed harvested -Counting Quantity of true seed harvested -Counting Record the number of true seeds sown per cross or family Number of true seeds sown-counting Number of true seeds sown-counting Time of first seed germination-Estimation Record date the first seed germination observed per cross or family Time of first seed germination-Estimation Record date the last seed germination observed per cross or family Date end of seed germination-Estimation Date end of seed germination-Estimation Compute the proportion of sown true or botanical seed which germinate and produce seedling ready for transplant , usually observed at three weeks after sowing. Germination rate - Computation Germination rate - Computation Number of germinated seedling-Counting Record the number of germinated seedlings per cross or family Number of germinated seedling-Counting compute the proportion of seedlings per family (cross) establish well and ready for transplanting, usually recorded at five weeks after sowing. Seedling establishment rate-computation Seedling establishment rate-computation Seedling tranplant survival rate-computation Seedling tranplant survival rate-computation Compute the proportion of seedlings survived or established well after transplant operation Vine cuttings planted -counting Vine cuttings planted -counting Count the numeber vine cuttings planted Compute the proportion or ratio of vines cuttings survive and producing shoots from the total of planted vine cuttings Vines established-computation Vines established-computation Time to 50% foliage senescence time - Estimation Record date of 50% plants in a plot are showing foliage senescence Time to 50% foliage senescence time - Estimation Foliage senescence time - Estimation Record the date when all plants in a plot shows a sign of 100% foliage senescence Foliage senescence time - Estimation Compute the number of days required for 50% of the plants in a plot showing foliage senescence Time to 50% foliage senescence time - Computation Time to 50% foliage senescence time - Computation Foliage senescence time - Computation Foliage senescence time - Computation Compute the number of days required from sprout emergence or planting to when all plants had fully senesced Compute number of growing degree days required from planting (or 50% emergence) to 50% foliage senescence or maturity. Growing degere days to maturity-Estimation Growing degere days to maturity-Estimation Maturity class - Estimation Maturity class - Estimation Observe the status of foliage senescence (leaf or vine yellowing) of plants in plot at 6 month onward and rate the maturity status Dry rot presence on harvested tubers-Estimation Observe the occurance or presence of dry rot caused by nematods (Scutellonema bradys and Practylenchus spp.) on harvested tubers and record the presence and absence Dry rot presence on harvested tubers-Estimation Take count of dry rot tubers per plot at harvest Dry rot tuber number-counting Dry rot tuber number-counting Tuber dry rot incidence - Computation Compute the proportion dry rot tubers from the total number of harvested tubers per effective plot Tuber dry rot incidence - Computation Tuber dry rot severity - Estimation Tuber dry rot severity - Estimation Score the severity of dry rot in harvested tubers Leaf beetle incidence - Computation Leaf beetle incidence - Computation Compute the proportion of plants with leaf beetle damage from the total number of plants in the effective plots on leaf beetle damange record taken twice(at two and five months after planting date) Assess the leaf beetle infestation at two and five months after planting and record its severity Leaf beetle severity - Estimation Leaf beetle severity - Estimation Compute the proportion tubers infested with mealybugs from the total number of harvested tubers per effective plot at time of harvesting. Mealybug tuber incidence - Computation Mealybug tuber incidence - Computation Mealybug tuber severity - Estimation Mealybug tuber severity - Estimation Mealybug tuber severity estimation on infested tubers at time harvesting Root knot nematode incidence - Computation Compute the proportion tubers showing root knot nematode symptoms from the total number of harvested tubers in effective plot Root knot nematode incidence - Computation Root knot nematode severity - Estimation Root knot nematode severity - Estimation Root knot nematode severity estimation in a range from no symptoms to highly severe galling scored in secondary roots of the plant and tubers adventitious roots. Tuber beetle incidence - Computation Tuber beetle incidence - Computation Compute the proportion tubers with tuber's beetle damage from the total number of harvested tubers in the effective plot at harvesting time. Tuber beetle severity - Estimation Tuber beetle severity - Estimation Tuber beetle severity or intensity estimated usually as number of nymph present in tubers at harvesting time. Viruses infection incidence - Computation Compute the proportion of virus symptomatic individuals or their parts or commonly the portion of plant units in a plot. Take virus incidence recording thrice: First inspection at 8 to 10 weeks after planting and second inspection after 4 to 6 weeks after first inspection for virus symptoms and the third and final inspection 4 to 6 weeks after the second inspection . Viruses infection incidence - Computation Viruses infection severity - Estimation Observe relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by virus disease and record the severity as a proportion or percentage of plant surface affected using visual five ordinal scale . Predominant severity per plot must be registered at least thrice : 8 to 10 weeks after planting; 4 to 6 weeks after first scoring and the last scoring at 4 to 6 weeks after the second scoring Viruses infection severity - Estimation Compute the proportion of anthracnose damaged individuals or their parts ; commonly the portion of plant units in a plot. Count anthracnose disease ���blight��� or '' leaf spot'' affected plants in plot twice (First inspection at 10 to 12 weeks post planting and second inspection after 2 to 4 weeks before harvesting ) and compute the proportion of damanged Anthracnose incidence - Estimation Anthracnose incidence - Estimation Observe relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by yam anthracnose disease and record the severity as a proportion or percentage of plant surface affected.It is visual score in scale under screenhouse, artificial inoculation or under field natural infestation. For artificial inoculation use a suspension of three most virulent strains of Colletothrichum gloeosporioides and inoculate the plants raised from vine cutting in vertical sack or other means by spraying. For natural infestation, scores can be taken 10 to 12 weeks after planting and second scoring about 4-6 weeks before harvesting . Artificial inoculation should be scored at 3 days after inoculation(DAI) , and repeated at 7DAI, 11DAI and 15DAI Anthracnose severity - Estimation Anthracnose severity - Estimation Number of bulbil - Counting Count the number of aerial tubers or vine bulbils produced per net plot. Number of bulbil - Counting Number of bulbil - Computation Number of bulbil - Computation Count number of aerial tubers or vine bulbils on plants in a net plot and compute the average number bulbils per plant Record shape of bulbils or aerial tubers in scale Bulbil shape-Estimation Bulbil shape-Estimation Bulbil yield (Plot weight) - Measurement Bulbil yield (Plot weight) - Measurement Record the fresh weight of harvested bulbil or aerial tuber per net plot Bulbil yield (fresh weight) per plant-computation Compute the weight to harvested bulbils per plant Bulbil yield (fresh weight) per plant-computation Computed the yield of bulbil per hectare using the formula. Bulbil yield (fresh weight) per hectar- Computation Bulbil yield (fresh weight) per hectar- Computation Bulbil initiaition time - Estimation Bulbil initiaition time - Estimation Record date when 50% of plants in a plot begin producing bulbils or aerial tubers Bulbil initiation time - Computation Compute number of days required from sprout emergence to 50% of plants in a plot start forming bulbils or aerial tubers Bulbil initiation time - Computation Record the presence and absence of bulbils (aerial tubers) in the vines of yam plant Presence of bulbil - Estimation Presence of bulbil - Estimation Counting the number of plants where tubers were harvested in a plot Plant harvested number - Counting Plant harvested number - Counting Big size tubers harvested number - counting Big size tubers harvested number - counting Count the number of tubers in a plot weighing ���1 kg harvested per effective plot Medium size tubers harvested number- counting Count the number of tubers in a plot weighing ��� 500 gm and <1 kg harvested per effective plot Medium size tubers harvested number- counting Count the number of tubers in a plot weighing less than 500 gm harvested per effective plot Small size tubers harvested per plot number - counting Small size tubers harvested per plot number - counting Rotten tubers in a plot number-counting Rotten tubers in a plot number-counting Count the number of rotten and/or diseased tubers in effective plot Compute the sum of all category/size tubers (big, medium, small and rotten/diseased) in a net plot Total tuber harvested number-computation Total tuber harvested number-computation Big size tubers per plant-computation Compute the number of big size tubers produced per plant using the formula number of big size tuber in a plot divided by the total number of harvested plants Big size tubers per plant-computation Medium size tubers per plant-computation Compute the number of medium size tubers produced per plant using the formula number of medium size tuber in a plot divided by the total number of harvested plants Medium size tubers per plant-computation Small size tubers per plant-Computation Small size tubers per plant-Computation Compute the number of small size tubers produced per plant using the formula number of small size tuber in a plot divided by the total number of harvested plants Compute as the total number of tubers in a net plot divided by the number of harvested plant per net plot Total tubers per plant-computation Total tubers per plant-computation Big size tubers fresh weight per plot- measurement Record the weight of big size ( ���1 kg) tubers in a net plot Big size tubers fresh weight per plot- measurement Medium size tubers fresh weight per plot -measurement Record the weight of medium size ( ��� 500 gm and <1 kg) tubers in a net plot Medium size tubers fresh weight per plot -measurement Small size tubers fresh weight per plot- measurement Small size tubers fresh weight per plot- measurement Record the weight of small size ( < 500 gm) tubers in a net plot Record weight of rotten and/or diseased tubers harvested in a net plot Rotten tuber fresh weight per plot - Measurement Rotten tuber fresh weight per plot - Measurement Total tuber fresh weight per plot -computation Total tuber fresh weight per plot -computation Compute the sum all category or size of tubers (Big, medium, small size, and rotten and diseased) fresh weight per plot Total tuber fresh weight per plant-computation Total tuber fresh weight per plant-computation Compute by dividing fresh weight measurement of all categroy/size tubers taken in a plot to the number of harvested plant in a net plot Compute by dividing fresh weight measurement of big size tubers taken to the number of harvested plants in a net plot Big size yam fresh weight per plant- computation Big size yam fresh weight per plant- computation Compute by dividing fresh weight measurement of medium size tubers taken to the number of harvested plants in a net plot Medium size yam fresh weight per plant-computation Medium size yam fresh weight per plant-computation Small size yam fresh weight per plant-computation Small size yam fresh weight per plant-computation Compute by dividing fresh weight measurement of small size tubers taken to the number of harvested plants in a net plot Tuber yield no adjusted- Computation Computed as total tuber weight per plot divided by size of net or effective harvest plot and result multiplied by 10 Tuber yield no adjusted- Computation Big size yam yield no adjusted- Computation Big size yam yield no adjusted- Computation Calculated as big size yam tuber weight per plot divided by size of effective harvest plot mutiplied by 10 Computed as total tubers weight per plant multiplied by planting density and result divided by 1000 Total tuber yield adjusted-computation Total tuber yield adjusted-computation Big size yam yield adjusted-computation Big size yam yield adjusted-computation Calculated as big size yam tuber weight per per plant mutiplied by planting density and result divided by 1000 Big yam tuber average weight-computation Big yam tuber average weight-computation Calculated as weight of big size tubers per plot divided by total number of big size tubers per plot Average tuber weight -computation Calculated as total tuber weight per plot divided by total number of tubers per plot Average tuber weight -computation Position of root appearance on tubers-Estimation Record position of appearance of roots at surface to tubers Position of root appearance on tubers-Estimation Hairiness of tuber bark - Estimation Record the intensity of tuber hairs or secondary roots on the surface of harvested tubers Hairiness of tuber bark - Estimation Observe the appearance of roots, thones and srout buds on surface of harvested tubers and make visual score using scale Tuber surface appearance - Estimation Tuber surface appearance - Estimation Record the smoothness or roughness of tuber skin in visual scale Tuber surface texture - Estimation Tuber surface texture - Estimation Record the presence or absence of thorns or spines on the tuber skin in visual scale Tuber thorniness - Estimation Tuber thorniness - Estimation Record the degree of thorns or spines on tuber surface in visual scale Tuber thorniness intensity-Estimation Tuber thorniness intensity-Estimation Length of big size tubers-Computation Measure the length of at most five big size tubers (���1kg) from base to tip in a net plot at harvest and record the average Length of big size tubers-Computation Length of medium size tubers-Computation Length of medium size tubers-Computation Measure the length of at most five medium size tubers (���500 gm and <1kg ) from base to tip in a net plot at harvest and record the average Measure the length of at most five small size tubers (<500 gm) from base to tip in a net plot at harvest and record the average Length of small size tubers-Computation Length of small size tubers-Computation Tuber length-Computation Compute average tuber length of all size tubers measurement taken in a net plot Tuber length-Computation Determination of the predominant shape in the entire family/plot as a unit Tuber shape - Estimation Tuber shape - Estimation Tuber size - Estimation Determination of predominant size of the tuber in the entire family Tuber size - Estimation Width of big size tubers-Computation Width of big size tubers-Computation Measure the width of at most five big size tubers (���1kg) from net plot at wider portion of the tuber using vernier calliper or measuring tape and record the average Measure the width of at most five medium size tubers (���500 gm and <1kg )from net plot at wider portion of the tuber using calliper or measuring tape and record the average Width of medium size tubers-Computation Width of medium size tubers-Computation Width of small size tubers-Computation Width of small size tubers-Computation Measure the width of at most five small size tubers (<500 gm) from net plot at wider portion of the tuber using calliper or measuring tape and record the average Compute the average tuber width of all size measurement taken in a net plot Tuber wideth-computation Tuber wideth-computation Record appearance of cracks on tuber surface as absent, few and many cracks on the tuber surface-Estimation cracks on the tuber surface-Estimation Crazy roots presence on tubers at harvest-Estimation Record appearance of crazy roots on tuber surface at harvest Crazy roots presence on tubers at harvest-Estimation Corm on tubers-Estimation Score corm status of tubers using a binary scale Corm on tubers-Estimation Record the corm ability to be separated from tuber in a binary scale Corm separation from tuber-Estimation Corm separation from tuber-Estimation Corm size-Estimation Corm size-Estimation Record corm size in relation to tuber size using three scale Record the corm type as regular, transversally elongated or brached using scale Corm type-Estimation Corm type-Estimation Assess the proportion of sprouted tubers at different time interval (once a week) from harvesting up to three months after harvesting and rate the dormancy period in scale Dormancy period -Estimation Dormancy period -Estimation Tuber dry matter content - Computation Select at least five random whole tubers from a net plot and cut small slices (1-2 mm) from proximal, middle and distal portion and mixed thoroughly. Record fresh weight and determin dry weight of samples by drying at 70��C for 72 h in a forced air oven. A proportion between the dry weight and the fresh weight is calculated. Tuber dry matter content - Computation Tuber flesh color head portion - Estimation Tuber flesh color head portion - Estimation Observe and record the fresh cut tuber flesh surface color at the head portion of the tuber at harvesting time. Observe and record the fresh cut flesh surface color at the middle part of the tuber at harvesting time. Tuber flesh color middle portion - Estimation Tuber flesh color middle portion - Estimation Tuber flesh color lower or tail portion- Estimation Tuber flesh color lower or tail portion- Estimation Observe and record fresh cut tuber flesh surface color at the tail portion of the tuber at harvesting time. Tuber flesh color reading -measurement Tuber flesh color reading -measurement Measure the flesh surface color of tuber (head, middle and tail portion) at different time interval (0, 30, 60, 180 minutes after cutting) using colorimeter (a color spectrophotometer) or standard color chart. Record the uniformity of tuber flesh cross-section color using visual scale at fresh cut during harvest Tuber flesh cross section color uniformity-estimation Tuber flesh cross section color uniformity-estimation Score the intensity of tuber flesh oxidation (flesh surface color change) at different time interval (0, 30, 60, 180 minutes after cutting) using scale Tuber flesh oxidation intensity-Estimation Tuber flesh oxidation intensity-Estimation Tuber flesh texture-Estimation Record the texture of tuber flesh using scale Tuber flesh texture-Estimation Record time in minutes lasted for cut tuber flesh to become or not oxidized and score in scale Tuber oxidation-Estimation Tuber oxidation-Estimation Tuber flesh oxidation color-Estimation Record the flesh enzymatic oxidation color using color scale Tuber flesh oxidation color-Estimation Cohesiveness of pounded yam- Estimation Cohesiveness of pounded yam- Estimation Score the degree to which particles of a pounded yam stick together or how moldable it is using intensity scale Score the distance to which the deformed material can be or degree of stretchabiliy pounded yam in intesity scale Springiness of pounded yam-Estimation Springiness of pounded yam-Estimation Smoothness of pounded yam- Estimation Smoothness of pounded yam- Estimation score the smoothnessof the pounded yam , i.e., absence of lumps by finger feeling and using intensity scale Presence of fiber strand-Estimation Presence of fiber strand-Estimation Score the presence or absence of ���ber strands on pounded yam Score the sticknes or adhesiveness of pounded yam to consumern fingur using sensory test panelist Stickiness of pounded yam - Estimation Stickiness of pounded yam - Estimation Score taste of pounded yam using sensory test panalist Taste of pounded yam - Estimation Taste of pounded yam - Estimation Scale insect infestation - Estimation Scale insect infestation - Estimation Observe and score scale insect infestation on tuber at harvest Record the predominant color of stem on mature plant at five to six month after emergence using a five color scale Stem color - Estimation Stem color - Estimation Observe the leaf abundance or mass on a mature plant and rate the density leaf density - Estimation leaf density - Estimation Count the number of branches above ground on at least five mature plants in a plot and record the average number of branchs - computation number of branchs - computation Stem height - computation Stem height - computation Measure the length or height of stem or vine of at least five mature plants in a plot using measuring tape at five to six months after sprout emergence and record the average Number of Leaves - Computation Count the number of leaves on at least five young plants in a plot at 30 days after emergence and record the average Number of Leaves - Computation leaf position - Estimation Observe the arrangement of leaves on stem or vine and rate it leaf position - Estimation leaf length - computation Measure the length from lobes to the tip using a measuring tape on sampled 20 adult leaves ( four leaves per plant and at leat five plants on a plot), and record the average length leaf length - computation leaf width - computation Measure the width from the widest part of leaf using a measuring tape on sampled 20 adult leaves ( four leaves per plant on at leat five plants in a plot), and record the average width leaf width - computation Measure the length of internode at 1m height on five (5) plants and record the average Internode length - computation Internode length - computation Hair on stem - Estimation Observe the presence or absence of hairs on stem surface Hair on stem - Estimation leaf color - Estimation leaf color - Estimation Assess the color of leaf on a young plant vein color - Estimation Assess the color of leaf vein on the upper surface vein color - Estimation Assess hairiness of leaf surface (upper part) leaf hairiness - Estimation leaf hairiness - Estimation petiole length - Computation petiole length - Computation Measure the length of petiole using measuring tape on sampled 20 adult leaves ( four leaves per plant on at leat five plants in a plot), and record the average length number of tubers number of tubers gm/sett gm/sett Date (yyyymmdd) Date (yyyymmdd) days days plants per plot plants per plot Percentage Percentage % % 0-1 scale 0-1 scale 0= Absent 1= Present 1-5 scale 1-5 scale 1= No infestation 2= Low (few nymph in one part of the tuber) 3= Moderate (few nymph in several parts of the tuber) 4= High (several nymph in many parts of the tuber) 5= Very high (many nymph in all parts of the tuber) cm cm 0-2 scale 0-2 scale 0= Absent 1= Sparse 2= Dense 1-3 general scale 1-3 general scale 1= small 2= intermediate 3= large 1-7 general scale 1-7 general scale 1= White 2= Creamy white 3= Yellow 4= Purple 5= Purplish white 6= creamy 7= brownish white 8= deep purple 9=orange number of stem number of stem mm mm number of internode number of internode 1-4 general scale 1-4 general scale 1= Very short (More than 50 % of the tubers sprouted at harvesting time) 2= Short (More than 50% of the tubers sprouted at one month after harvesting time) 3= Mediun (More than 50% of the tubers sprouted at two month after harvesting time) 4= Long (More than 50% of the tubers sprouted at three month after harvesting time) 0-1 nominal scale 0-1 nominal scale 0= No 1= Yes 1-2 nominal scale 1-2 nominal scale 1= Clockwise (climbing to the left) 2= Anticlockwise (climbing to the right) number of florets number of florets number of spikes number of spikes 0-9 scale 0-9 scale 0= No flower or bud. No inflorescence and not flowering at all 1= aborted flower. Presence of small or rudimentary inflorescences/flowers that can show an abortion or abscission point at joint of the pedicel 3= Low (flowering is scare with the presence of few flowers mostly less than 10 inflorescences per plant) 5= Moderate (producing some flowers mostly 10-29 inflorescences per plant) 7 = Profuse (plant producing many more flowers mostly 30 to 50 inflorescences per plant) 9 = Extremely pofuse (plant producing with abundant flowring mostly more than 50 inflorescences per plant) 1-3 scale 1-3 scale 1= big lumps 2=small lumps 3= no lumps 1-4 scale 1-4 scale 1= Yellowish 2= Green 3= Pale purple 4= Purple 0-4 scale 0-4 scale 0= Non flowering 1= Male flower 2=female flower 3= Monoecious male (m>f) 4= Monoecious female(f>m) Fruits/cross Fruits/cross number of fruits number of fruits 1-2 scale 1-2 scale 1= Smooth 2= Rough number of seed number of seed number of fruit number of fruit Number of plant Number of plant GDD��C GDD��C 1-9 scale 1-9 scale 1= Very Late (all the plants in a plot still show green foliage (green leaf and vine) 3= Late (75% of the plants in a plot with still green foliage but few plants (upto 25% plants in a plot) showing up to 25% of leaves senescence 5= Medium (50% of the plants are still green or on the onset of senescence. Only 50% plants in a plot with 25% of the leaves showing senescence or slight yellowing 7= early (The plants have senescent foliage (75% of the plants in a plot with 50% leaves showing sign of yellowing but the vines still green) 9= very early (The plants are completely senescent, yellowing is complete and uniform (both leaves and vines 100% senescence) Number Number 0-4 general scale 0-4 general scale 0= No symptoms 1= 1-25% tuber skin showing symptoms 2= 26-50% tuber skin showing symptoms 3= 51-75% tuber skin showing symptoms 4= 76-100% tuber skin showing symptoms 1-5 general scale 1-5 general scale 1= No visible symptoms of anthracnose disease or infection spot on the leaf surface 2= Few anthracnose spots or sysmptoms on 1 t0 ~25% of the plant. One or two spots of less than 1 cm diameter width, and dry tissue on the leaf surface 3= Anthracnose symptoms covering ~26 t0 ~50% of the plant. One or two spots of more than 1 cm diameter width, and dry tissue on the leaf surface. Small dark and no dried spots with more than 1 cm width, are present 4= Symptom on >51% of the plant. Coalesced spots with dry tissue and covering a signifcant proprotion of the leaf surface. Areas with less than 1 cm width are coalescing to bigger spots also. Yellowing of green tissue is intense around the spots areas. 5=Severe necrosis and death of the plant. Coalesced spots with dry tissue more than 1.5 cm of diameter and covering a great proprotion of the leaf surface. Yellowing of the gree tissue is generalised in the leaf blade. number of bulbils number of bulbils bulbil/plant bulbil/plant kg kg kg/plant kg/plant tons/ha tons/ha plant per plot plant per plot Tuber number/plot Tuber number/plot tuber number/plant tuber number/plant kg/plot kg/plot 0-1 binary scale 0-1 binary scale 0= Absent 1= Present 0-7 scale 0-7 scale 0= no thorns or spines on tuber surface 3= few thorns or spines on tuber surface 7= Many thorns or spines on tuber surface 1-4 score 1-4 score 1= Spherical 2= Oval 3= Cylindrical 4= Irregular 0-3 scale 0-3 scale 0= Absent 1= few 2= many 0-1 scale 0-1 scale 0= Absent 1= Present 1-7 scale 1-7 scale 3= Low 5= Intermediate 7= High number of branch number of branch m m number of leaf number of leaf Agronomical trait Agronomical trait Biotic stress trait Biotic stress trait Morphological trait Morphological trait Phenological trait Phenological trait Physiological trait Physiological trait Quality trait Quality trait